Graduate Theses & Dissertations

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Near-road assessment of traffic related air pollutants along a major highway in Southern Ontario
The spatial and temporal variation in atmospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ammonia (NH3), and 17 elements (V, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Pb, Mg, Al, Ca, Co, Se, Sb, Mn, and Na) were measured at 40 road side locations along a ~250 km traffic density gradient of 40,000–400,000 vehicles on the King’s Highway 401, in Ontario, Canada. Elemental concentrations were measured over a year, using moss bags as passive samplers, for four quarterly three-month exposure periods (October 2015 – October 2016). Gaseous NO2 and NH3 concentrations were measured using Willem’s badge passive diffusive samplers for twelve one-week exposure periods (one per month: October 2015–October 2016). Dry deposition of nitrogen was estimated using the inferential method. There were significant linear relationships between NO2 and NH3 and average annual daily traffic (AADT) volumes across the study area; higher concentrations corresponded to higher volume traffic sites. Average NO2 concentrations at sites ranged from 23.5 to 73 μg/m3, with an annual average of 43.7 μg/m3. Ammonia ranged from 2.56 to 13.55 μg/m3, with an annual average of 6.44 μg/m3. There were significant quarterly variations in NO2, with concentrations peaking during the winter months. In contrast, NH3 showed no significant quarterly variation, but a slight peak occurred during the summer. Gaseous NO2 and NH3 were highly positively correlated (r = 0.63), suggesting a common emission source from traffic. Concentrations in exposed moss were determined by subtracting the total concentration of each metal in the exposed sample from the background concentration present in the moss. Relative accumulation factors (RAF) and contamination factors were also calculated to determine the anthropogenic influence on tissue concentrations in exposed moss. All metals showed elevated levels versus background concentrations, with all metals except Ni and Co showing considerable enrichment. The highest levels of contamination were from V, Cr, Fe, Zn, Cd, Sb, Pb and Na. Principal component analysis indicated 5 clear clusters of related elements, with PC1 accounting for 36.2% and PC2 accounting for 25.6% of the variance. Average annual daily traffic was significantly related to Cr, Fe, Cu, Sb, Mn, Al, and Na. Road side monitoring shows consistently higher concentrations than active monitoring sites located further from the edge of the road, indicating a need for increased road side monitoring in Ontario, Canada. Author Keywords:
Tests of the Invasional Meltdown Hypothesis in invasive herbaceous plant species in southern Ontario
According to the Invasional Meltdown Hypothesis (IMH), invasive species may interact in their introduced range and facilitate future invasions. This study investigated the possibility that Alliaria petiolata, an invasive allelopathic herbaceous plant in Ontario, is facilitating invasions by additional alien species. Two allelopathic focal species were chosen for this study: the native Solidago canadensis and the invasive A. petiolata. Field surveys in southern Ontario that quantified plant biodiversity in plots that included one or both focal species revealed no support for the IMH, although fewer species co-existed with A. petiolata than with S. canadensis. A year-long recruitment experiment in Peterborough, Ontario, also produced results inconsistent with the IMH, although did provide some evidence that A. petiolata limited recruitment of other species. These results collectively show negative impacts on regional biodiversity by A. petiolata, even in the absence of an invasional meltdown. Author Keywords: allelopathy, Alliaria petiolata, co-occurrence surveys, invasional meltdown hypothesis, invasive species, Solidago canadensis
Effects of Geographic Factors on the Wild Harvest of Large Mammals across North America
While the harvest of mammals is monitored in each jurisdiction across Canada and the USA, there has been no analysis of this wild harvest at a continental scale across North America. The recreational wild harvest of large mammals varies geographically across North America, and I hypothesized that this variation is influenced by both anthropogenic and other environmental factors on the landscape. I tested this hypothesis using annual harvest tallies collected by Conservation Visions Inc. for mammals for each state, provincial, and territorial jurisdiction in Canada and the USA. I built multiple additive models of the harvest, in one harvest year, 2015 – 2016, to test for landscape gradients that explain the variation in harvest levels for seven large mammal species: white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), black bear (Ursus americanus), bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), elk (Cervus canadensis), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), pronghorn (Antilocapra americana), and moose (Alces alces). I built these models from a suite of nine putative predictor variables that comprised landcover, human footprint, and evapotranspiration. For all large mammal species except for pronghorn, anthropogenic influence had a positive effect on the wild harvest density, consistent with the idea that the proximity of human populations and roads are important for fostering wild harvest activity by providing hunters access to hunting areas. The harvest of white-tailed deer, elk, and pronghorn were negatively affected by vegetation structure, urbanization, and primary productivity, respectively. Understanding the recreational wild harvest at a broad-spatial scale provides a unique perspective of the North American model of wildlife conservation and spurs future comparative analyses of the wild harvest across spatial scales. Author Keywords: Anthropogenic Influence, Hunting, Large Mammals, Primary Productivity, Vegetation Structure, Wild Harvest
Assessing Molecular and Ecological Differentiation in Wild Carnivores
Wild populations are notoriously difficult to study due to confounding stochastic variables. This thesis tackles two components of investigating wild populations. The first examines the use of niche modeling to quantify macro-scale predator-prey relationships in canid populations across eastern North America, while the second examines range-wide molecular structure in Canada lynx. The goal of the first chapter is to quantify niche characteristics in a Canis hybrid zone of C. lupus, C. lycaon, and C. latrans to better understand the ecological differentiation of these species, and to assess the impacts of incorporating biotic interactions into species distribution models. The goal of the second chapter is to determine if DNA methylation, an epigenetic marker that modifies the structure of DNA, can be used to differentiate populations, and might be a signature of local adaptation. Our results indicated that canids across the hybrid zone in eastern North America exhibit low levels of genetic and ecological differentiation, and that the importance of biotic interactions are largely lost at large spatial scales. We also identified cryptic structure in methylation patterns in Canada lynx populations, which suggest signatures of local adaptation, and indicate the utility of DNA methylation as a marker for investigating adaptive divergence. Author Keywords: Ecological Epigenetics, Ecological Genetics, SDM
cis-Cytokinins from the tRNA-degradation pathway impact the phenotype and metabolome of Arabidopsis thaliana
Cis-isomers of the cytokinin plant hormone family are thought to have low activity or impact on plant growth and development. Mutants with independent silencing of the pathway leading to cis-CK (cis-cytokinin) were investigated at the phenotype and metabolite levels. Phenotypic deviations were noted in trichome development, fresh weight, rosette diameter, number of non-rosette leaves, shoot height, delayed flowering, flower number, and carotenoids. Exploratory metabolomic analysis detected a number of metabolite features that have been associated with CK, auxin, and ABA (abscisic acid) activity. Evidence from both phenotype and metabolomic analysis support the hypothesis that cis-CK production is biologically important for plant growth and development. Author Keywords: arabidopsis, cytokinin, IPT, metabolmics
spatial and temporal distribution of tabanid (Chrysops, Hybomitra and Tabanus) species in the Nakina district of northwestern Ontario
This thesis focused on expanding knowledge of Hybomitra, Chrysops and Tabanus (Diptera: Tabanidae) distributions north of Lake Nipigon, Ontario, in a managed boreal forest. As land use and climate changes accelerate, there is increased pressure to increase knowledge from which to monitor changes. In 2011 and 2012, 8928 individuals representing, 44 species were captured using sweep netting. Major northward range extensions were observed for Chrysops shermani, C. aberrans and Tabanus fairchildi. Smaller range extensions and in-fills were observed for another 15 species. 23 species had exntensions to their previously known seasonal range. C. carbonarius was the only species that showed an extension to both sides of its season. In general, harvested stands had 50% more individuals and 30% greater species richness than younger stands. A possible link between stand age and interspecific competition was identified. Information has been provided to build baseline of species richness, relative abundance and distribution of Tabanid flies. Author Keywords: diptera, distribution, natural history, northern Ontario, species range, tabanid
Assessing Connectivity of Protected Area Networks and the Role of Private Lands in the United States
Forestalling biodiversity loss through the establishment of protected areas is a universally accepted conservation strategy, yet despite established guidelines for protected area coverage and placement, much of the world is currently failing to meet its commitments to conservation planning and landscape protection. Calls for the United States to protect more land usually focus on the need for strategic selection of land parcels to bolster protected area coverage and network functionality, but to date there lacks focused research on either the role of private protected areas in conservation planning or the factors affecting individual protected area selection and importance. We determined gaps in conservation planning in the contiguous United States by analyzing the connectivity of protected area networks by state, and assessing the importance of private protected areas in improving linkages in protected area connectivity. We found that all states had low coverage from protected areas (average <8.4% of total land mass), and especially private protected areas (average <1.1% of total land mass), and that the overall contribution of such areas to protected area network connectivity also was low. Terrain ruggedness was identified as the main factor affecting the current location of protected areas, and that protected area spatial layout is a primary influence on landscape connectivity. We conclude that establishment of private protected areas could offer a viable conservation tool for increasing protected area coverage and connectivity, but that current efforts are inadequate to either adequately link existing protected areas or to meet established land protection guidelines. Author Keywords: Aichi Target 11, conservation planning, graph theory, network theory, private conservation, protected areas
Influence of Canopy Water Partitioning on the Isotopic Signature of Plant Water in a Mixed Northern Forest
This study seeks to clarify the way in which the differing canopy characteristics among tree species influence the partitioning of precipitation, and therefore the source of water available for plant water uptake, in the Plastic Lake catchment near Dorset, ON. Three dominant tree species were compared: red oak (Quercus rubra), eastern white pine (Pinus strobus), and eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis). Above-canopy precipitation, throughfall, stemflow, and soil water content were monitored weekly from June 2016 until October 2016 and the 18O and 2H isotopic signatures of each were analyzed. Plant water and bulk soil water samples were also collected from five trees of each species at five stages of the growing season to compare the isotopic signature of xylem water to that of their surrounding soils. Both plant water and bulk soil water displayed evidence of isotopic fractionation; however, plant water was more depleted in δ2H and δ18O than bulk soil water. Water interacting with the tree canopies as throughfall and stemflow did not display significant evidence of isotopic fractionation. This suggests that the vegetation could have accessed an isotopically distinct source of water stored within the soil or that an unknown isotopic fractionation process occurred throughout this study. Author Keywords:
Changes in Forms of Uranium in Anoxic Lake Sediments and Porewaters Near an Abandoned Uranium Mine, Bancroft, Ontario
Soluble uranium (U) has been observed continuously in the porewaters of Bentley Lake, a lake with semi-permanent anoxic sediments, despite the fact that reduced U(IV) is known to be insoluble. To be able to predict the fate and mobility of U that has been deposited in lake sediments, it is very important to understand the factors that determine soluble uranium in anoxic environments. Understanding soluble U species is crucial for predicting its behavior in natural systems as well as for the development of U remediation schemes. To explore the factors affecting soluble U in natural environments, anoxic lake sediments and porewaters were tested using two analytic methods, ICP-MS and ESI-HR-MS. Reduced uranium (U(IV)) can be precipitated as U(IV)-NdF3. Using this method revealed that most of the uranium in porewater is not able to be co-precipitated with NdF3. In addition, UO2+ was found using ESI-HR-MS, showing uranyl ions exist in reduced porewater. However, the UO2+ might be attached to some organic groups rather than present as free ions. Seasonal variation and air exposure experiments on the mobility of U between sediments and porewater were observed to test for changes of the redox state of U as a function of sample collection and storage. The results of this study will contribute to better remediation strategies for U tailings and will help U mining operations in the future. Author Keywords:
Research and development of synthetic materials for presumptive testing in bloodstain pattern analysis
Chemical presumptive tests are used as the primary detection method for latent bloodstain evidence. This work focuses on developing a forensic blood substitute which mimics whole blood reactivity to a luminol solution commonly used in presumptive testing. Designing safe and accessible materials that mimic relevant properties of blood is a recognized research need in forensic science. Understanding the whole blood dynamics related to reactivity with presumptive testing chemicals is important for developing accurate analogues. Provided in this thesis is a quantitative and qualitative characterization of photoemission from the reaction of a luminol solution to ovine blood. Luminol reactivity of a horseradish peroxidase encapsulated sol-gel polymer was validated against this ovine blood standard. This material, the luminol-reactive forensic blood substitute, is a key deliverable of this research. An optimized protocol for implementing this technology as a reagent control test, and as a secondary school chemistry experiment are presented. This thesis outlines the research and development of a forensic blood substitute as it relates to presumptive testing in bloodstain pattern analysis. Author Keywords: bloodstain pattern analysis, forensic science, luminol, presumptive testing, secondary school education, sol-gel chemistry
Enduring Attack
Numerous prey taxa employ defensive postures for protection against attack by predators. Defensive postures mitigate predation risk at various stages of the predator-prey sequence, including through crypsis, mimicry, thanatosis, aposematism, and deflection. In terrestrial salamanders, defensive postures may be aposematic, or deflect attacks away from vital body parts and towards the tail, however the extent to which these strategies act exclusively or synergistically remains poorly understood. Herein I demonstrate a novel approach to study the function of salamander defensive postures through experimental manipulation of predator response to antipredator behaviour in a natural field setting. I deployed 1600 clay salamander prey on Pelee Island, Ontario, manipulating prey size (small, large) and posture (resting, defensive) and documented attack rates across three predator types to further assess the effect of prey body size and predator type on antipredator efficacy. My research suggests that irrespective of prey body size, defensive posture does not function through aposematism, but rather acts to deflect predator attacks to the tail, which is commonly noxious and expendable in terrestrial salamanders. An intriguing possibility is that this behaviour facilitates taste-rejection by predators. Overall, my research should further contribute to our understanding of the importance and potential evolutionary significance of defensive posturing in Ambystoma salamanders, and more broadly, on the determinants of prey vulnerability to predation. I also briefly discuss the implications of my results to the conservation of Ambystoma populations on Pelee Island. Author Keywords: Anti-predator behaviour, Aposematism, Attack deflection, Predator avoidance, Small-mouthed salamander, Taste-rejection
Complex niche determinants in terrestrial salamanders
I assessed how organisms having multiple biotic attributes may have conflicting niche determinants, and whether the realized niche reflects single or multiple attributes. All-female salamanders engage in two biotic states: hybridism and reproductive parasitism. Hybrids should occupy areas transitional to those used by parental species, whereas parasites that engage in competition with hosts should occupy habitats moderately suitable for hosts. Using niche models, I predicted realized niches for unisexual Ambystoma via a hybrid model (environmental predictors) and a parasite model (host suitability predictors). The hybrid model predicted that the unisexual niche would indeed be transitional between parental Ambystoma spp. The parasite model demonstrated unisexual salamanders occupied habitats moderately suitable for hosts, though model validation did not fully corroborate its predictive power. The hybrid model was more descriptive of unisexual occurrence than the parasite model. When species have competing ecological roles a primary biotic attribute may largely derive the realized niche. Author Keywords: Ambystoma, hybrid, niche, parasite, range, unisexual

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