Graduate Theses & Dissertations


We investigated whether hand-proximity effects arise from the recruitment of visual-tactile bimodal cells. In Experiment 1, we executed right-hand open-loop reaching movements to targets, presented either near or far from the resting left-hand, and after applying repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to suppress neuronal activity in the PMd and AIP, in Experiment 2. Results from Experiment 1, indicated that near-hand targets improved accuracy and reduced variability. In Experiment 2, suppressing PMd showed similar near-hand effects as above. In contrast, applying rTMS to AIP disrupted the representation of target location, indicating less accuracy and greater error. Near-hand proximity effects possibly arise from the recruitment of visual-tactile bimodal cells within the human AIP. Author Keywords: anterior intraparietal sulcus, peripersonal space, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), , rTMS, anterior intraparietal sulcus, AIP., visual-tactile bimodal neurons
I investigated the impact of beef-cattle farm management on the reproductive success of Bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus) and Eastern Meadowlark (Sturnella magna) within Eastern Ontario. I monitored rotational grazing management regimes and hay cut dates while assessing breeding phenology and reproductive success of Bobolinks and Eastern Meadowlarks. In pasture paddocks the major factor determining Bobolink reproductive success was the date that cattle entered a paddock to graze, with earlier entries resulting in lower reproductive success. On a landscape scale, within a series of paddocks grazed by a single herd, as the number of paddocks grazed during the nesting season increased, the number of Bobolinks that reproduced successfully decreased. Experimental quantification of trampling showed that cattle exposure to clay pigeon targets, regardless of stocking rates, resulted in the majority of targets being trampled. In hayfields associated with beef- cattle operations, grassland birds had a higher likelihood of success when cutting occurred after 4 July. The best method to improve the reproductive success of Bobolinks and Eastern Meadowlarks is to leave some hayfields and pasture paddocks undisturbed until nesting is complete. Author Keywords: Bobolink, Dolichonyx oryzivorus, farm management, hayfield, pasture, rotational grazing
ABSTRACT The Ethics of Being-With: Exploring Ethics in Heidegger's Being and Time Adam Rejak Martin Heidegger is perhaps best known for his work Being and Time, in which he tries to re-discover what he deems to be a forgotten question; the meaning of being. However, what many have missed in this work is the ethical potential it presents, particularly through his notion of Mitsein. This thesis will discuss how the history of philosophy has misunderstood the question of intersubjectivity. Throughout the history of philosophy, there has been a tendency to focus on detachment of the subject, rather than an engaged existence. Heidegger overcomes this by introducing the concept of Mitsein and allowing us to think of being-with one another as something which is integral to our very being, rather than something which comes to us through detached reflection. The consequences of this re-interpretation are significant for ethics because our starting point is always-already with others, rather than isolated and alone. Author Keywords: Being-with, Ethics, Heidegger, Intersubjectivity, Mitsein
My study was primarily focused on the comparison of life history traits between stocked American eel and their naturally recruited conspecifics in Lake Ontario and the upper St. Lawrence River (USLR/LO). I found that stocked eels experienced faster annual growth than their naturally recruited conspecifics and were comprised of a greater proportion of males. These findings indicate that the life history patterns of American eel may be genetically predisposed. Additionally, my study served to characterize the diets of stocked American eel and examine possible associations between eel and prey size. The eels consumed a number of macroinvertebrate prey orders as well as fishes and macrocrustaceans, with the latter prey items being more prevalent in the diets of larger eel specimens. A disparity in eel growth and body condition was observed between two primary stocking locations and were likely attributable to differences in available forage and habitat. Lastly, growth, body condition, and stocked eel diet were compared between lentic and lotic habitats. Eels from lotic streams experienced slower annual growth and had reduced body condition, and their diets were comprised of smaller prey items. The results of this study suggest that the current stocking methods employed in the USLR/LO are not suitable to restore the natural recruitment of individuals that will exhibit desired life history traits. Author Keywords:
ABSTRACT The Propensity Toward Extremist Mind-Set as Predicted by Personality, Motivation, and Self-Construal Nick Fauset Multivariate regression analyses were used to determine the effects of Personality (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness), Motivation (External, Amotivation, Intrinsic, and Identified), and Self-Construal (Independent and Interdependent) on three domains of Extremist Mind-Set (Proviolence, Vile World, and Divine Power). Participants consisted of first year undergraduate students (209 females, 76 males) enrolled in Introductory Psychology (N=279) and/or Introductory Economics (N=7), whom participated for course credit. The Motivation measure was problematic for students to complete and this variable was dropped from the model due to missing data. Decreases in Neuroticism, Openness, Agreeableeness, and Interdependent were significantly correlated with increases in Proviolence. Decreases in Agreeableness were correlated with increases in Vile World. Decreases in Openness, and increases in Agreeableness and Interdependent were significantly correlated with increases in Divine Power. These observations provide an interesting perspective on the types of Canadian undergraduate students who are more likely to score highly on measures of Extremism. Keywords: Militant Extremist Mental Mind-Set, Extremism, Personality, Five Factor Model, Motivation, Intrinsic, Extrinsic, Self-Construal, Independent, Interdependent Author Keywords: Extremism, Militant Extremist Mental Mind-Set, Motivation, Personality, Self-Construal
Experiments have observed a two-dimensional electron gas at the interface of two insulating oxides: strontium titanate (SrTiO3) and lanthanum aluminate (LaAlO3). These interfaces exhibit metallic, superconducting, and magnetic behaviours, which are strongly affected by impurities. Motivated by experiments, we introduce a simple model in which impurities lie at the interface. We treat the LaAlO3 as an insulator and model the SrTiO3 film. By solving a set of self-consistent Hartree equations for the charge density, we obtain the band structure of the SrTiO3 film. We then study the relative contributions made by the occupied bands to the two-dimensional conductivity of the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface. We find that the fractional conductivity of each band depends on several parameters: the mass anisotropy, the filling, and the impurity potential. Author Keywords: conductivity, impurities, insulating oxides, Two-dimensional electron gases
Tabanidae and Culicidae in the Northern Boreal Region of Ontario
I studied the abundance, distribution and diversity of horse fly and deer fly species (Diptera: Tabanidae) and mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) in the boreal forest region of northern Ontario in 2011 and 2012. I collected 19 mosquito species, including one species new for Ontario, Aedes pullatus (Coquillett). I documented 11 northern and one southern range extension. I also collected a total of 30 species of horse and deer flies, including one new species of horse fly for Ontario, Hybomitra osburni (Hine). Results were inconsistent with a hypothesis of colonization of dipteran species from west to east. I examined the trapping biases of Malaise and sweep sampling for horse and deer flies and found that Malaise traps collected fewer individuals than sweep netting (850 versus 1318) but more species (28 versus 22). Consequently, I determined that surveys of diversity benefit from the use of multiple trapping methods. I also examined how blood-feeding (anautogeny) requirements affect the distribution patterns of Tabanidae. Ultimately, there are likely multiple factors that affect the expression of anautogeny in Tabanidae. Author Keywords: Autogeny, Culicidae, Diversity, Hudson Bay Lowlands, Northern Ontario, Tabanidae
Talking it out
The literature to date that investigates the development of social perspective taking in children primarily focuses on preschool aged children. These studies provide evidence that implicates language as being crucial for social perspective taking in young children but less is known about the importance of language to social perspective taking during middle childhood and early adolescence. The current study uses Selman's theory of socio-cognitive development to investigate the maturation of social perspective taking and the importance of language to social problem solving in 8 year olds (n = 111) and 12 year olds (n = 112). Analysis of variance and scalogram analysis shows a developmental progression of social perspective taking across the social problem solving process. Children may be able to demonstrate reciprocal perspective taking when generating strategies before they are able to demonstrate reciprocal perspective taking for other steps of social problem solving. Flexibility in interpersonal orientation is shown to be a predictor of social problem solving ability. Correlations and multiple regression analysis demonstrate that language is important to overall social problem solving but that the role of semantic and syntactic language may differ at age 8 compared to age 12. Author Keywords: interpersonal orientation, language, Selman, social cognition, social perspective taking, social problem solving
Teacher Efficacy as an Indicator of how Mathematics Educators Perceive the Value of Professional Learning Experiences
This study investigates the potential for a responsive model of professional development in mathematics education which acknowledges how teachers perceive the value of professional learning, and examines how those perceptions are connected to teacher efficacy. Three fields of educational research ground this study: (i) professional development strategies in mathematics education, (ii) teacher efficacy, and (iii) self-determination theory and andragogy. Data collection and analysis involved four detailed case studies and a cross-case analysis of similarities and distinctions among the cases, in an instrumental-multiple-case study design. Results suggest: (1) some characteristics of professional development were consistently designated as high or low value, independent of efficacy ratings, (2) other professional learning experiences were valued relative to the participants’ sense of efficacy at different times in their careers, and (3) characteristics of professional development designated as high value during periods of low efficacy were fundamentally teacher-centric, but during periods of high efficacy, they were fundamentally student-centric. Author Keywords: efficacy, mathematics education, mathematics teachers, professional development, professional learning, teacher efficacy
Technology of Consent
The 1980s in the United States have come into focus as years of extensive ideological and socioeconomic fracture. A conservative movement arose to counter the progressive gains of previous decades, neoliberalism became the nation’s economic mantra, and détente was jettisoned in favour of military build-up. Such developments materialized out of a multitude of conflicts, a cultural crisis of ideas, perspectives, and words competing to maintain or rework the nation’s core structures. In this dissertation I argue that alongside these conflicts, a crisis over technology and its ramifications played a crucial role as well, with the American public grasping for ways to comprehend a nascent technoculture. Borrowing from Andrew Feenberg, I define three broad categories of popular conceptualization used to comprehend a decade of mass technical and social transformations: the instrumental view, construing technology as a range of efficient tools; the substantive view, insisting technology is an environment that determines its subjects; and a critical approach, which recognizes the capacity for technology to shape subjects, but also its potential to aid new social agendas. Using Feenberg’s categories as interpretive lenses, I foreground these epistemologies in three of the decade’s most popular formations of literary science fiction (sf), and describe the broader discourses they participated in: military sf is connected to military strategy and weapons development (instrumental), cyberpunk to postmodernism and posthumanism (substantive), and feminist sf to feminist theory and politics (critical). These were not just discursive trajectories, I claim, but vital contributors to the material construction of what Antonio Gramsci would call hegemonic and counterhegemonic formations. While the instrumental paradigm was part of the decade’s prevailing hegemonic make-up, substantive and critical discourses offered an alternative to the reality of cowboy militarism and unchecked technological expansion. By engaging with the decade’s texts—from There Will Be War to RoboCop to “A Cyborg Manifesto”—I hope to illuminate what I call the technology of consent, the significance of technological worldviews for modern technocultures, where such views are consented to by subaltern groups, and at the same time the existence of consent itself as a kind of complex social technology in the first place. Author Keywords: American History, Discourse, Hegemony, Science Fiction, Technoculture, Technology
Temperature effects on the routine metabolic rates of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) eggs, alevin and fry
Early developmental stages of cold-adapted ectotherms such as brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) are at risk of mortality with increasing water temperatures because of their sensitivity to changes in their environment. I studied the mass and routine metabolic rate (RMR) of wild-origin brook trout eggs, alevin and young fry reared at normal (5°C) and elevated (9°C) temperatures for the duration of the study or at mismatched temperatures. This setup determined if preconditioning acclimation for one temperature benefits or hinders the organism later in life. Three levels of biological organization (ancestry, population, family) were studied using Akaike’s Information Criterion (AIC) to identify models that best accounted for variation in the data. Family, mass and temperature were most important in predicting body mass and mass-adjusted RMR, although population and ancestral-level differences were also detected at some life stages. Strong variation in body mass and mass-adjusted RMR among families may indicate adaptive potential within brook trout populations to respond to increases in water temperature with climate change. Author Keywords: Acclimation, AIC, Brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), Environmental matching, Routine metabolic rate, Temperature
Temporal Variability of Coloured Dissolved Organic Matter in the Canada Basin, Arctic Ocean (2007-2017)
This thesis investigated coloured and fluorescent dissolved organic matter in the Canada Basin, Arctic Ocean from 2007 to 2017. The first interannual time-series of its kind in the Canada Basin incorporated the use of EEM-PARAFAC to validate a seven-component model. Statistical temporal tests revealed (1) an increasing protein-like intensity in the upper polar mixed layer (UPML); (2) increasing intensities of humic-like components in the halocline due to increasing freshwater content; and (3) no change in DOM composition in deeper Atlantic waters (AW) congruent with the long residence time of the water mass (> 30 years). The significant decline in sea ice concentration was related to a decrease in humic-like FDOM due to enhanced photodegradation and an increase in protein-like FDOM, likely the results of increased biological activities in surface layers. This research provides evidence that the changes in physical and biological environment in the Arctic regions have already profound impacts on the composition and distribution of FDOM. Author Keywords: absorbance, Arctic Ocean, dissolved organic matter, fluorescence, parallel factor analysis, time-series


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