Graduate Theses & Dissertations


Calcium in the Muskoka River Watershed- Patterns, trends, the potential impact of forest harvesting and steps toward an ecosystem approach to mitigation
Decreasing lake calcium (Ca) concentration, in lakes located in base poor catchments of the Muskoka River Watershed (MRW) in south-central Ontario, is a well- established acid-rain driven legacy effect threatening the health and integrity of aquatic ecosystems that can be compounded by additional Ca removals through forest harvesting. The objectives of this thesis were to assess patterns and temporal trends in key water chemistry parameters for a set of lakes in forested catchments in the MRW in south- central Ontario, to predict the pre-industrial steady state lake Ca concentration and the potential impact of harvesting on lake Ca levels in lakes located in managed MRW Crown forests, and to assess potential effects of various mitigation strategies in Ca depleted managed forests. Mean lake Ca (mg L-1) in 104 lakes across the MRW have decreased by 30% since the 1980's with the rate of decrease slowing over time. Mean Lake SO4 (mg L-1), and Mg (mg L-1) concentration also decreased significantly with time (37% and 29%, respectively) again with a declining rate of decrease, while mean lake pH and DOC increased significantly between the 1980's and the 1990's (16% and 12%, respectively) but exhibited no significant pattern after that. Principal components and GIS spatial analyses of 75 lakes with data from 2011 or 2012 water seasons suggested that smaller lakes, at higher elevation in smaller catchments with higher runoff and minimally impacted by the influence of roads and agriculture are associated with lower Ca concentrations and thus are the lakes at risk of amplified Ca depletion from forest harvesting. Spatial analyses of harvested catchments indicated that, under the proposed 10 year land forest management cut volumes, 38% of 364 lakes in the MRW will fall below the critical 1 mg L-1 Ca threshold compared with 8% in the absence of future harvesting. With respect to potential mitigation measures, soil pH and foliar Ca were indicated by meta-analysis to be more responsive to lime addition studies while soil base saturation and tree growth appeared more responsive to wood-ash addition. Future research should address the spatial extent of lakes at risk and identify when critical levels will be reached under harvesting regimes. Further investigation into the use of Ca-addition as a tool for managing the cumulative effects of past, present and future stressors is recommended. Author Keywords: calcium, harvesting, lakes, lime, Muskoka River Watershed, wood-ash
Near-road assessment of traffic related air pollutants along a major highway in Southern Ontario
The spatial and temporal variation in atmospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ammonia (NH3), and 17 elements (V, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Pb, Mg, Al, Ca, Co, Se, Sb, Mn, and Na) were measured at 40 road side locations along a ~250 km traffic density gradient of 40,000–400,000 vehicles on the King’s Highway 401, in Ontario, Canada. Elemental concentrations were measured over a year, using moss bags as passive samplers, for four quarterly three-month exposure periods (October 2015 – October 2016). Gaseous NO2 and NH3 concentrations were measured using Willem’s badge passive diffusive samplers for twelve one-week exposure periods (one per month: October 2015–October 2016). Dry deposition of nitrogen was estimated using the inferential method. There were significant linear relationships between NO2 and NH3 and average annual daily traffic (AADT) volumes across the study area; higher concentrations corresponded to higher volume traffic sites. Average NO2 concentrations at sites ranged from 23.5 to 73 μg/m3, with an annual average of 43.7 μg/m3. Ammonia ranged from 2.56 to 13.55 μg/m3, with an annual average of 6.44 μg/m3. There were significant quarterly variations in NO2, with concentrations peaking during the winter months. In contrast, NH3 showed no significant quarterly variation, but a slight peak occurred during the summer. Gaseous NO2 and NH3 were highly positively correlated (r = 0.63), suggesting a common emission source from traffic. Concentrations in exposed moss were determined by subtracting the total concentration of each metal in the exposed sample from the background concentration present in the moss. Relative accumulation factors (RAF) and contamination factors were also calculated to determine the anthropogenic influence on tissue concentrations in exposed moss. All metals showed elevated levels versus background concentrations, with all metals except Ni and Co showing considerable enrichment. The highest levels of contamination were from V, Cr, Fe, Zn, Cd, Sb, Pb and Na. Principal component analysis indicated 5 clear clusters of related elements, with PC1 accounting for 36.2% and PC2 accounting for 25.6% of the variance. Average annual daily traffic was significantly related to Cr, Fe, Cu, Sb, Mn, Al, and Na. Road side monitoring shows consistently higher concentrations than active monitoring sites located further from the edge of the road, indicating a need for increased road side monitoring in Ontario, Canada. Author Keywords:
Jail Time
Children of incarcerated parents are an understudied at-risk population. However, this thesis was designed to advance our understanding of the effects of parental incarceration and factors that may influence the impact. Using quantitative methods, possible moderating roles of gender, number of incarcerated parents, and contact frequency on the associations between attachment representations and problem behaviours were investigated in two samples. Results revealed that the number of incarcerated parents and contact frequency with incarcerated parents moderated the associations between attachment and externalizing behaviours. Furthermore, after controlling for several factors (e.g., gender, number of incarcerated parents, and contact) higher scores on secure parental attachment representations were consistently negatively associated with internalizing symptoms and externalizing behaviours. The discussion of findings highlight the utility of attachment theory in conceptualizing the impact of parental incarceration and the importance of fostering attachment security to promote positive mental health and behavioural outcomes for children of incarcerated parents. Author Keywords: attachment, internalizing symptoms, parental incarceration, problem behaviours
Use Of Rapid Amygdala Kindling With Corticosterone Supplementation As A Model Of Epilepsy-Depression Comorbidity
Temporal lobe epilepsy increases risk for developing major depression, and conversely, depression increases risk for development of epilepsy. The mechanisms responsible for the widely observed bi-directional relationship between epilepsy and depression are currently poorly understood. One reason why our understanding of shared etiology has had little improvement is due to the lack of availability of a reliable animal model for inducing depression in epileptic animals. The development of a reliable model of epilepsy-depression comorbidity would greatly improve the ability to mechanistically evaluate shared pathophysiology between the conditions. Recently there has been evidence that rapid kindling of the basolateral amygdala can evoke a behavioural phenotype that is comparable to the symptoms of anxiety and depression observed in depressed epileptic patients. However, this work has yet to be replicated, leaving question as to whether or not the behavioural phenotype can be reliably evoked. In the following series of experiments we assessed rapid amygdala kindling as a potential model of epilepsy-depression comorbidity and sought to improve the model with inclusion of the glucocorticoid corticosterone. Our findings may improve our understanding of the unique relationships between epilepsy and depression. Author Keywords: animal models, depression, hippocampus, kindling, stress, temporal lobe epilepsy
ABSTRACT The Ethics of Being-With: Exploring Ethics in Heidegger's Being and Time Adam Rejak Martin Heidegger is perhaps best known for his work Being and Time, in which he tries to re-discover what he deems to be a forgotten question; the meaning of being. However, what many have missed in this work is the ethical potential it presents, particularly through his notion of Mitsein. This thesis will discuss how the history of philosophy has misunderstood the question of intersubjectivity. Throughout the history of philosophy, there has been a tendency to focus on detachment of the subject, rather than an engaged existence. Heidegger overcomes this by introducing the concept of Mitsein and allowing us to think of being-with one another as something which is integral to our very being, rather than something which comes to us through detached reflection. The consequences of this re-interpretation are significant for ethics because our starting point is always-already with others, rather than isolated and alone. Author Keywords: Being-with, Ethics, Heidegger, Intersubjectivity, Mitsein
Control, Surveillance and Subjective Commodification on Facebook
This thesis is a theoretical study of Facebook's surveillance project. It begins by taking one of the predominant organizational forms of modern surveillance, Foucaultian panopticism, and examining the ways in which its form, along with Foucault's broader model of the disciplinary society, is realized, remixed and extended by Facebook's virtual form. Following this evaluation, the remainder of the thesis proposes a model to augment this panoptical analysis. The first part of this model uses Deleuze and Guattari's philosophy of the rhizome to explain the structural design and advantages of Facebook's network, while the second part deploys Zygmunt Bauman and David Lyon's concept of "liquid surveillance" as a means to explain how Facebook fosters seductive conditions of self-surveillance. The thesis concludes that older forms of control, new forms of seduction and the utility of advanced technologies are responsible in tandem for the undeniably widespread success of Facebook's surveillance project. Author Keywords: Bauman, Deleuze, Facebook, Foucault, post-panopticism, surveillance
Assessing limnological characteristics of subarctic Québec thaw ponds and mercury methylation and methylmercury demethylation within their sediments
Thawing permafrost due to increasingly warm temperatures in northern subarctic regions is releasing mercury. The consequent formation of thaw ponds in the peatland palsa valley of the Sasapimakwananisikw (SAS) river in Whapmagoostui-Kuujjuarapik, Québec may provide a pool for MMHg formation and a potential risk to aquatic and human life, if these ponds facilitate MMHg export through hydrological connections to nearby waterways. Hg methylation and MMHg demethylation activities were examined in thaw pond sediments using a Hg tracer isotope incubation experiment. Analysis by coupling gas chromatography cold-vapor atomic fluorescence spectrophotometry (GC-CVAFS) with inductively coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) techniques showed that MMHg was produced at a higher rate and within the first 2 h of incubation for both summer and winter seasons. For thaw ponds SAS1A, SAS1B and SAS2A, MMHg was formed at 0.0048 % h-1, 0.0012 % h-1, and 0.0008 % h-1, respectively during winter and at 0.0001 % h-1, 0.0016 % h-1, and 0.0010 % h-1, respectively during summer. Detection of MMHg losses were not as expected likely due to limitations of the combined tracer spike and overestimation of the in situ ambient mercury levels. Physical and chemical properties vary within ponds, among ponds and between winter and summer. SAS1B’s location nearby an organic carbon rich palsa may be ideal to study DOC – Hg interactions. Variability in pond characteristics including depth, surface area, age, pH, temperature, colour, oxygen concentration, total dissolved and suspended solids, conductivity, carbon, mercury, ammonium, calcium, magnesium, sulfate, total phosphorous, potassium, and sodium between seasons indicate the challenge of predicting future environmental impacts of climate change related thaw pond creation in the north. Author Keywords: demethylation, mercury, methylation, methylmercury, SAS, thaw ponds
Icelandic Dust Entrainment, Emission & Deposition
Extremely active dust sources within selected areas of Iceland that are comprised of particles supplied from both glacio-fluvial outwash systems and volcanic eruptions (Bullard et al., 2016; Gassó et al., 2018). The supply of sediments, sparsity of vegetation, high frequency of surface winds, and lack of adequate gravel pavement to reduce sand drifting are believed to influence the duration, frequency, and magnitude of these dust events in Iceland. Apart from recent collaborative efforts to measure and model dust entrainment, emission and deposition (Prospero et al., 2012; Zwaaftink et al., 2017), several underlying physical mechanisms that are unique to cold, humid climates and the geology of Iceland are not well understood. This study specifically aims to assess and understand the physics of Icelandic dust entrainment and deposition with an emphasis on the influence of climate and the physical characteristics of the particles. A series of laboratory experiments of different configurations were carried out on several sediments collected from some of the most emissive sources in Iceland in order to understand these dust processes. The results from this study show that the increasing particle sphericity is associated with progressively smaller particle size; and an abundance of amorphous glass increases the surface area and roughness of the particles, which contributes to high porosity that alters the particle skeletal density. The particle features and climate are interlinked with the entrainment and deposition rates. For instance, coarse sediments emit higher PM concentrations than sediments containing more clay. The strong wind shear at the bed surface acts to disperse many of the tiny particle aggregates and coated liquid droplets contained within a splash structure created by the impact of a single water droplet. The deposition of suspended dust particulates is dependent on the particle characteristics and relative humidity. The retreat of glaciers and ice-cap masses in Iceland are expected to expose new dust particulate sources as the global mean temperature continues to rise (Cannone et al., 2008; Radic and Hock, 2011). Therefore, the influence of the particle characteristics and climate on the dust entrainment, emission and de- position must be accounted for in the parameterization of dust dispersion models related to suspended volcaniclastic particles. Author Keywords: High latitude cold climate environments, Icelandic dust particle characteristics, Laser Doppler anemometer, Rain droplet impact, Settling velocity, Wind tunnel
Contributions of Mayflies (EPHEMEROPTERA
Walleye (Sander vitreus) are an ecologically and economically significant fish harvestedby recreational and commercial fisheries across Ontario. Adult Walleye are piscivores, but anecdotal evidence from anglers suggests that Walleye often target aquatic insects such as mayfly larvae (Ephemeroptera). My research examined the diet of Walleye caught from May to September in Lake St. Joseph in northern Ontario. I examined the stomach contents of angle harvested Walleye to identify the prey over two summers. Through morphological analysis of stomach contents, mayflies were found to be a significant prey source for Walleye, during larval emergence events in early summer, and to a lesser extent throughout the rest of the summer season. These findings are important for long term management of Walleye populations and associated resources. I also assess the potential and problems of Walleye management and research from my experiences of having worked with industry, government, and university partners on this project. Author Keywords: alternative prey, Food web interactions, invertebrate, piscivore, Predator prey interactions
Tabanidae and Culicidae in the Northern Boreal Region of Ontario
I studied the abundance, distribution and diversity of horse fly and deer fly species (Diptera: Tabanidae) and mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) in the boreal forest region of northern Ontario in 2011 and 2012. I collected 19 mosquito species, including one species new for Ontario, Aedes pullatus (Coquillett). I documented 11 northern and one southern range extension. I also collected a total of 30 species of horse and deer flies, including one new species of horse fly for Ontario, Hybomitra osburni (Hine). Results were inconsistent with a hypothesis of colonization of dipteran species from west to east. I examined the trapping biases of Malaise and sweep sampling for horse and deer flies and found that Malaise traps collected fewer individuals than sweep netting (850 versus 1318) but more species (28 versus 22). Consequently, I determined that surveys of diversity benefit from the use of multiple trapping methods. I also examined how blood-feeding (anautogeny) requirements affect the distribution patterns of Tabanidae. Ultimately, there are likely multiple factors that affect the expression of anautogeny in Tabanidae. Author Keywords: Autogeny, Culicidae, Diversity, Hudson Bay Lowlands, Northern Ontario, Tabanidae
When He Reigns, It Pours
This thesis examines the symbolic meaning and significance that the elite attached to water in ancient Bagan. Through the use of ethnoarchaeological, epigraphic, archaeological, and iconographic data, this study examines the role of water as part of rituals performed by the royal court and the ways in which the royalty of Bagan, in particular King Kyansittha, negotiated, appropriated and disseminated water symbolism to fulfill his interests. Data indicates that the symbolic and religious meaning of water was intricately attached to Buddhist concepts of fertility, wisdom, creativity, and protective powers. Evidence suggests that the royalty employed different techniques to appropriate and disseminate water ritualization, including the performance of water rituals that were closely attached to kingship, power, and ruler legitimacy, the promotion of an alliance with creatures capable of increasing rains and fertility, and the use of analogies that compared the properties of water with the virtues of the king. Author Keywords: Bagan, Bagan Iconography, Jataka Tales, Royal Rituals, Theravada Buddhism, Water Rituals
Maintaining Balance in Times of Change
Abstract Maintaining Balance in Times of Change: An Investigation into the Contemporary Self-Regulatory Dynamics that Operate in and around First Nations Traditional Healing Systems The evolution of health regulation processes in Canada has focused on the development of standards of practice premised upon the principle of `do no harm' and the approval of these by government regulatory agencies. This thesis examines three emerging communities of practice that bring traditional indigenous knowledge and indigenous healers forward into health care and their approaches to regulation. The results indicate that surrounding contexts of meaning influence understandings about self-regulation and that these understandings are dynamic because contemporary practices of First Nations traditional healing can occur in different contexts. The study cautions that unless we remain close to these `healer centred' contexts, there is no guarantee that the self-regulatory value systems stemming from modern Western medical communities of practice will not be applied by default or that the emerging `integrative' models of self-regulation developed between governments and First Nations will continue to reflect First Nations' understanding of self-regulation. Author Keywords: health and wellness, indigenous, self-determination, self-regulation, traditional healing


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