Graduate Theses & Dissertations

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Tools and Techniques
The tools and techniques used by Ontario’s Middle Woodland potters to create designs on vessels have often been assumed in the literature. Pottery typologies currently use these assumptions to classify ceramics found in the archaeological record. Assumed, or suggested, tools and techniques include cord impression, cord-wrapped stick, fabric impression, fabric-wrapped paddle, incised paddles, unmodified shell, modified shell dentate tools, and leather thong. This thesis presents a series of experiments using replica versions of these tools. The results reveal that they are all viable tools for creating designs during ceramic manufacture. Specifically, incised paddles may have been used to create check-stamped pottery, unmodified shell may have been to create what the literature calls pseudo-scallop shell impressions, and modified shell may have been used to create what the literature calls dentate impressions. Where possible, experimental tiles were compared with examples from the Charleston Lake collection of complete to near complete Middle and Late Woodland vessels from Southeastern Ontario. These comparisons have revealed problems in the current classification and study of the Charleston Lake collection and a need for a re-evaluation of the current typologies used to classify Middle Woodland pottery Author Keywords: ceramic manufacture, cord-wrapped stick, experimental archaeology, Middle Woodland, point peninsula, pseudo scallop shell
After the Ash Fall
Mount Mazama, a large volcano located in the Cascade Range of Oregon, eruptedsome 7,000 cal. years BP. Following the volcanic eruption, a large portion of the northwestern region of the Great Plains of North America was covered by a thick layer of volcanic ash. The present research project is concerned with the impact of this catastrophic event on the subsistence patterns of the northwestern Plains groups during the early Archaic period (ca. 6,600–6,000 BP). More specifically, this research project tests the hypothesis that the eruption of Mount Mazama prompted the adoption of bone grease rendering in this part of the Plains. To test this hypothesis, a faunal analysis of the assemblages of Stampede site, located on the Cypress Hills of southeastern Alberta, was performed. The results of the analysis presented here show that the faunal material of the Stampede site is extensively burnt, which seems to be more in line with the intentional disposal of bones in hearth features, possibly for cleaning purposes, than with bone grease manufacture. The methodological issues regarding the identification of bone grease rendering from archaeozoological assemblages are discussed here. Author Keywords: Bone Grease Rendering, Carcass Processing Behaviour, Faunal Analysis, Great Plains, Northern Plains, Subsistence
Unsettling Inner Landscapes
Recent climate scientists, Indigenous resurgence scholars, and psychologists have variously indicated that we need a transformation of consciousness in order to address the cultural and spiritual forces at the root of our current environmental, interpersonal, and individual crises of disconnection. My research is in direct response to diverse calls for this paradigm shift, including the words of Elders such as the late Grandfather William Commanda who encouraged settlers such as myself to ‘remember our original instructions’. Through an anti-colonial and trauma-informed lens, my goal has been to strategically inform my roles and responsibilities in healing the disconnection and abuses in what I term the trilogy of my relationships to self, others, and Land. This study is both a critical auto-ethnography and as well as a theoretical engagement with Indigenous resurgence, settler colonialism, and sustainability discourses. I share dialogues with Anishinaabe-kweg in my community with whom I have established relationships and the results of our discussions focus on holistic models of transforming settler consciousness. What emerges is an emotional, uncertain, and yet radically hopeful narrative that points to the urgency of centering Indigenous sovereignty and Indigenous relationship models while endeavouring to reconstruct a sense of identity and belonging along more accountable lines. Recovering a sense of my Celtic epistemology and story work is offered as a strategic exemplar of how settlers might begin to remember and co-create more balanced, respectful, and reciprocal relationships with and within place. Nurturing an embodied spiritual practice of deep listening, critical self-reflection, and collective action is discussed as potentially central to sustaining a decolonizing praxis for white settler Canadians more broadly. Author Keywords: Critical auto-ethnography, Critical Spirituality, Decolonization, Indigenous-settler relations, Original Instructions, Settler colonial studies
Experiences of Seven Deaf & Hard-of-Hearing Alumni of Ontario’s Education System
Through narrative/life story research this study explores the educational experiences of six individuals identified as Deaf or hard-of-hearing. The research presented will be conveyed in the form of an autoethnography, an approach to research and writing that seeks to describe and analyze personal experience to understand cultural experience. I will combine the views of participants who have been part of the Ontario Public School System within the last 10-15 years (2004-2019), with my own educational experience, learning with hearing loss. In this study, three interrelated concepts—student engagement, motivation, and resilience—are examined through the lens of “mindsets.” Mindsets are “assumptions that we possess about ourselves and others that guide our behaviour” (Brooks, 2012, p. 1). The research reviewed in this paper, shows that students’ beliefs about their academic ability can influence their academic tenacity. Academic tenacity refers to the mindsets and skills that enable students to: establish long-term goals and persevere in the face of adversity. I illuminate some of the systemic factors which impact the mindsets of students who are Deaf and hard-of-hearing. The design lies within the qualitative spectrum; data were gathered and analyzed from open-ended interviews conducted with purposively selected participants. Author Keywords: Academic Tenacity, Autoethnography, Deaf, Education, Hard-of-Hearing, Mindsets
Community Coalescence and Regional Geospatial Trends of Ceramic Decorative Variation in Late Woodland Northern Iroquoia
This case study focuses on geospatial patterns of decorative variation in pottery assemblages from 234 Northern Iroquoian village communities, occupied between ca. 1350–1650 CE. Previous interpretations of these assemblages’ ceramic decorative variability have been based on the assertion that potters from these communities used collar decorative motifs as communicative social signals. However, they did not consider whether these geospatial decorative patterns could simply reflect the outcome of stochastic macroscale social learning processes driven solely by probabilistic information exchange between closer neighboring communities. Cultural transmission, the theoretical framework applied here, is well-suited to address this perspective. Thus, the primary research question of this case study is, “Are the expected outcomes of random copying processes sufficient to explain the range of geospatial ceramic decorative variability observed across Northern Iroquoia?” Random copying processes are the stochastic, probabilistic social learning mechanisms driving the collective decisions of multiple communities, making up one side of the “random-selective copying spectrum.” When the decorative decisions of multiple communities are collectively guided by shared ideas (such as, potentially, symbolic communication structures), they become subsumed under the broad umbrella of “selective copying” processes. The social learning mechanisms involved on both sides have predictable geospatial and structural ranges of ceramic decorative patterning. The goal of this case study was thus to evaluate the range of patterning in Northern Iroquoia, both generally as well as at narrower temporal and spatial scales. Ultimately, region-specific temporal trends in selective copying processes seeming to reflect recently established temporal trajectories of community coalescence were identified. Author Keywords: coalescence, cultural population structure, cultural transmission, isolation by distance, Northern Iroquoia, social signaling
Examining the Diet of Early Nomadic Pastoralists in Southern Mongolia Using Carbon and Nitrogen Stable Isotope Analysis
This study reconstructs the diet of pastoral populations from Bronze Age Southern Mongolia and Early Iron Age Central Mongolia using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis of bone collagen from 44 individuals. Spatial and temporal differences were investigated and interpreted in combination with paleoenvironmental, archaeological, genetic and other stable isotope data. The Southern Mongolian diet is consistent with a mixed diet including C3 and C4 plants and large amounts of animal products from herd animals such as sheep/goat, horses and cattle. The δ13C values from Bronze Age Southern Mongolia are consistent with the consumption of C4 plants, most likely millet, obtained through trade with Northern China although environmental aridity might also be responsible for this pattern. The diet was relatively constant over time but spatial differences in Mongolia and Central Asia indicate variation in subsistence strategies based on environmental and cultural context. This thesis highlights the flexibility of pastoralism and its adaptability in the face of environmental and cultural changes. Author Keywords: Bronze Age, carbon and nitrogen isotopes, Mongolia, nomadic pastoralism, paleodiet, stable isotope analysis
Teacher Efficacy as an Indicator of how Mathematics Educators Perceive the Value of Professional Learning Experiences
This study investigates the potential for a responsive model of professional development in mathematics education which acknowledges how teachers perceive the value of professional learning, and examines how those perceptions are connected to teacher efficacy. Three fields of educational research ground this study: (i) professional development strategies in mathematics education, (ii) teacher efficacy, and (iii) self-determination theory and andragogy. Data collection and analysis involved four detailed case studies and a cross-case analysis of similarities and distinctions among the cases, in an instrumental-multiple-case study design. Results suggest: (1) some characteristics of professional development were consistently designated as high or low value, independent of efficacy ratings, (2) other professional learning experiences were valued relative to the participants’ sense of efficacy at different times in their careers, and (3) characteristics of professional development designated as high value during periods of low efficacy were fundamentally teacher-centric, but during periods of high efficacy, they were fundamentally student-centric. Author Keywords: efficacy, mathematics education, mathematics teachers, professional development, professional learning, teacher efficacy
Ohwén
Ohwén:tsia Entsionkwarihón:nien is a project that explores the intersection of Kanien’kéha immersion, Kanien’kehá:ka culture and the potential impacts of experiencing Rotinonhsón:ni knowledge on the land. Students at the Akwesasne Freedom School are fully immersed in the Kanien’kéha language and the “curriculum” is centered around four Rotinonhsón:ni systems of knowledge. What is missing, as identified by the teachers, is consistent opportunities for students to physically be on the land. This project asks how can we ensure that future generations of Onkwehónwe children can embody their language and their culture in connection to the land. The resulting “curriculum” then shifts from determining what students will learn, to listening to what the land has to teach. A land-based program by the AFS can translate to educational control, cultural sustainability, food sovereignty, environmental stewardship, community empowerment and linguistic revitalization; each of these is a critical component of building and rebuilding communities and nations. Author Keywords: Indigenous methodology, Land-Based Education, Rotinonhsón:ni, Storytelling
Why fish when you could farm? A stable isotope analysis of changing diet and ritual killing in the Virú Valley, Peru
Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses were performed on individuals from the Virú Valley, Peru to better understand the people and society in this region of early-state development. This analysis also sheds light on the lives of individuals from a ritual killing event at Huaca Santa Clara. Bone collagen stable isotope analysis revealed that all individuals had diets predominantly based on terrestrial resources, while incremental hair segments, skin, tendon, and nails revealed that marine resources made small, non-seasonal contributions to the diet. The prioritization of farming over fishing in the Virú Valley may be indicative of the economic specialization of agricultural and marine subsistence practices by distinct communities and the tendency of state-level societies to monopolize agricultural resources. The isotopic compositions of the individuals from the Huaca Santa Clara ritual killing event showed no evidence of a controlled diet before their death and identified a likely migrant to Virú. Author Keywords: Diet, Early Intermediate Period, Early-State Development, North Coast Peru, Ritual Killing Event, Stable Isotope Analysis
Rendering New Insights
The Upper Paleolithic sequence at Vale Boi, Portugal, represents an early example of resource intensification, for which evidence of both diet diversification and intensified utilization of faunal remains has been published. The current research project tests the hypothesis that bone grease rendering was occurring throughout the Upper Paleolithic sequence at Vale Boi. As there are various issues of equifinality which makes the identification of bone grease rendering challenging, data from experimental bone grease rendering studies were utilized. The resulting analysis demonstrated limited evidence in support of a sustained use of bone grease rendering during the Upper Paleolithic sequence. However, evidence suggested that alternate bone processing activities and discard behaviours may have been occurring at the site. This suggests that the dietary behaviours of the foragers at Vale Boi were more varied than previously hypothesized. Author Keywords: Archaeozoology, Bone Grease Rendering, Faunal Analysis, Iberia, Resource Intensification, Upper Paleolithic
“Has anybody got my back?”
Drawing on pedagogies of care, queer pedagogy and Foucault’s concept of biopower, this critical narrative study of six women teachers at an Ontario school uses interview data to explore how teaching affects women’s bodies. Findings include the dominance of men in schools; the high rate of violence against teachers committed by students; participants’ unwillingness to show bodily discomfort to students; and the profound effect of motherhood on teaching practice. I call on educators and school administrators to embed care of students’ and teachers’ bodies into the practices of schooling. I also propose that instead of erasing teacher corporeality from classrooms, we allow students to care for teachers’ bodies as part of a healthy, reciprocal caring relationship, developing students’ and sustaining teachers’ capacity to care. Given the underrepresentation of women’s voices speaking about violence against teachers, this thesis is also a repository for women’s narrated stories of assault in Ontario schools. Author Keywords: biopedagogies, body, care, narrative inquiry, pedagogy, teacher
Olives in the Mountains
Olives have been grown in the Mediterranean region for millennia and have been a staple crop in many of its cultures. This was never more true than during the Hellenistic (323 – 133 BC) and Roman (133 BC – AD 450) periods in the Mediterranean. This thesis examines the territory of the Roman city of Sagalassos in the region of Pisidia, modern province of Burdur, and determines if olives could have been cultivated in the territory. While there have been studies that state olives were cultivated in the territory during the Hellenistic and Roman periods, modern farmers as well as agronomic manuals state that such growth is not possible. This thesis present data that indicates that olives were grown in the territory of Sagalassos, but also examines the conditions olives require to grow and if such conditions existed in Pisidia. Through this I will be able to conclude whether the past presentation of data has does indeed prove that olives were grown within the territory of Sagalassos. Author Keywords: Agricultural Decision Making, Olives, Pisidia, Roman Agriculture, Sagalassos, Turkey

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