Graduate Theses & Dissertations


Beyond Beads
Burials at the Early Bronze Age IA (c. 3700-3400) cemetery of Fifa, Jordan included a variety of grave goods including beads. These were made of glazed steatite or carnelian. This thesis utilizes use-wear analysis, SEM-EDS, XRD, and a database of 5th and 4th millennium BCE beads in order to build life-histories for Fifa’s beads. Beyond focusing on how the beads were manufactured, where they were produced, how they travelled to the Fifa cemetery, and how they were used at the cemetery, the symbolic and contextual meanings of both types of beads are also explored. I argue that Fifa’s glazed steatite beads were manufactured in Upper Egypt while its carnelian beads were produced in Northwest Arabia. Their exchange facilitated economic and social connections. Both types of beads were likely used for their protective qualities with glazed steatite also potentially assisting in the successful reincarnation of deceased subadults. Author Keywords: Beads, Carnelian, Glazed Steatite, Levantine Archaeology, Mortuary Archaeology, Use-wear Analysis
Beyond Habitat
My objective was to understand how individual variation, in conjunction with variation in habitat, can affect individual and population-level variation in animal space use. I used coyotes (Canis latrans) as a model species to investigate the roles of hybridization, an inherited intrinsic factor, and spatial memory, a learned intrinsic factor, on space use. I used a diversity of methods and approaches, including meta-regression, multiple imputation, simulations, resource selection functions, step selection functions, net-squared displacement analysis, and survival analysis. A major contribution was my investigation of the performance of multiple imputation in a meta-regression framework in Chapter 2. My simulations indicated that multiple imputation performs well in estimating missing data within a meta-regression framework in most situations. In Chapter 3, I used published studies of coyote home range size in a meta-regression analysis with multiple imputation to examine the relative roles of hybridization and environmental variables on coyote home range size across North America. I found that hybridization with Canis species was a leading factor driving variation in coyote space use at a continental scale. In Chapter 4, I used telemetry data for 62 coyotes in Newfoundland, Canada, to investigate the influence of cognitive maps on resource use. I found that resident coyotes used spatial memory of the landscape to select or avoid resources at spatial scales beyond their immediate sensory perception relative to transient coyotes, presumably increasing their fitness. Taken together, my dissertation demonstrates that intrinsic factors, such as genetic ancestry and spatial memory, can have substantial influences on how animals use space at both individual and population levels, and at both a local and a continental scales. Author Keywords: canis latrans, hybridization, meta-regression, multiple imputation, Newfoundland, spatial memory
Beyond Paris
A presidential spouse in an era of rigid gender norms, Jacqueline Kennedy frequently straddled the divide between celebrity, social acceptability, and personal desire. Yet, history remembers America's thirty-seventh First Lady more for her fashion and soft-spoken nature. Forgotten is that she was a `transitional' figure, who oversaw America's largest restoration of the White House and served as a `goodwill ambassador' for her husband. When three gunshots brought their tenure to an abrupt end, Jackie's focus shifted and she fixated on the creation of a legacy that immortalized JFK. `Camelot,' is a construct almost exclusively conceived and executed by the former First Lady. In this vein, the coming exploration delves into the private actions of Jackie during her time in as First Lady, contrasting them sharply with her public image. What emerges is a portrait the world seldom saw: one driven by raw intellect and a desire to be of service to her husband and country. Author Keywords: Camelot, First Lady, Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis, John Fitzgerald Kennedy, Restoration, White House
Bifacial Stone Tool Variability during the Late Paleoindian Period at Kruger 2 (BiEx-23), Eastern Townships, Québec
This thesis established the variability of Late Paleoindian bifacial stone tool assemblage from the Kruger 2 site. Kruger 2 is a basecamp occupied during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition in the Eastern Townships, Southern Quebec. The goal of this project is to quantify the variability observed in bifacial tools and to explain it. Geometrics Morphometrics and traditional attributed-base lithic analysis are used conjointly for this purpose. Geometrics Morphometrics are a set of methods that are used to distinguish groups based on their shape and to understand the differences between those groups. It is used to test the validity of the morpho-types used to classify bifacial tools found on Kruger 2 (bifaces, drills, Ste-Anne-Varney points, Agate Basin points, and other projectile points). In terms of explanation, the organization of technology postulates (sensu Nelson 1991) lies at the core of the research. The analysis involved defining the factors of biface shape variation and evaluating whether shape variation is caused primarily by raw material, function, tool life histories, or other design constraints. It was determined that all three of these factors contribute to shape differences. The data suggest that the primary factors are raw material availability and tool life histories – two factors intimately intertwined. In other words, it is the organization of technology that seems to be the driving explanatory force that accounts for shape variability. Author Keywords: Eastern Towhships, Geometrics Morphometrics, Late Paleoindian, Organization of technology, Pleistocene-Holocene Transition, Stonetool variability
Bio-based Polymers from Epoxidized Vegetable Oils Modified by Metathesis
The epoxides of oligomeric self-metathesized soybean oil (MSBO) and cross-metathesized palm oil (PMTAG) and canola oil (CMTAG) containing terminal double bonds were used to produce nonisocyanate polyurethanes (NIPUs) as well as anhydride, amine and thiol-cured epoxies. The synthesized NIPUs displayed metal adhesive properties for CMTAG and MSBO with MSBO being favoured probably due to its plasticizing nature as opposed to CMTAG. The relationship was reversed for the anhydride curing reaction where it was found that CMTAG, due to its lower degree of plasticizing content from the reduced dangling chains, produced higher tensile strengths than MSBO. Both MSBO and CMTAG led to fully cured amine and thiol products that were sticky gels, which prevented physical analyzses of their expected solidified products. PMTAG, due to its low number of reactive groups, was not suitable for the synthesis of these polymers. Author Keywords: Amine-cured epoxy, Anhydride-cured epoxy, Metathesis, Nonisocyanate Polyurethanes, Thiol-cured epoxy
Biodiversity patterns along a forest time series in a remediated industrial landscape
Sudbury, Ontario is an epicenter of research on industrially degraded landscapes. Regreening efforts over the past 40 years have changed the landscape, leading to an increase in forest cover in the “barrens”, that once covered more than 100,000 ha. This study characterized changes in plant and insect composition using a space for time approach in the pine plantations. A total of 25 treated sites were sampled and soil characteristics, understory plants and insect communities were assessed. All sites were contaminated with copper and nickel, but the metals had little influence on biodiversity. Vegetation diversity metrics were more strongly correlated with the pH of the organic soil horizons, while the insect community shows little response to site characteristics, and rather vegetation cover. Plant composition changes are similar to those in pine stands undergoing natural recovery and as liming effects fade there may be a decline in insect community richness. Author Keywords: Biodiversity, Heavy Metals, Mining, Remediation
Biogeography of Carabidae (Coleoptera) in the Boreal forest
Basic biogeographic information is lacking for many species, such as where species are found, and how they dispersed there. Using ground beetles collected during 2008-2015 from across northern Ontario and Akimiski Island, Nunavut, I present new information on ground beetle distribution in this eastern Nearctic boreal forest, including 2 first Canadian records, 9 first provincial and 48 first territorial records, as well as 74 new records that extend the known range of many large and common ground beetles several hundred kilometres. I used these distributions to redress the knowledge gap that includes fundamental distribution data, i.e. the Wallacean shortfall, and to inform later chapters in my thesis.In Chapter 3, I examine the range expansion pattern of Carabus granulatus, a non-native species, as it spread across northeastern North America and I provide a new range record. Northern Ontario is already under threat from non-native species entering the region and it is important to conduct studies in the region before more disturbance associated with development occurs. In Chapter 4, I examine the hypothesis that northern Ontario effectively acts as a climate plateau for poikilotherms, using the predictions from Bergmann's rule as my metric. The body length of ground beetles does not appear to change over the small temperature gradient that exists across northern Ontario latitudes, supporting the climate plateau hypothesis. In Chapter 5, I test hypotheses about dispersal mechanisms that contributed to post glacial re-establishment of ground beetles using predictions of geographic distribution patterns as metrics. I found that ground beetles were likely carried downstream by rivers which aided their dispersal northward from southern refugia. I infer from the current geographic distributions that flightless ground beetle species are still expanding their range in this boreal region. Finally, I argue that there is an urgent need for more basic research on species distributions while it is still possible in regions like northern Ontario, before increased industrial and agricultural development, and expanding resource extraction projects obliterate evidence of historic ecological processes. Author Keywords: Boreal forest, Carabidae, Coleoptera, Passive dispersal, Post-glacial distribution, Range extension
Biology and Management of Stratiotes Aloides in the Trent River, Ontario
Invasive aquatic plants can create negative ecological, economic and social impacts when they displace local vegetation, interfere with shipping and navigation and inhibit water-based recreational activities. In 2008, the first North American occurrence of the invasive plant Stratiotes aloides (Water soldier) was identified in the Trent River, Ontario. This research measured offset photosynthesis and turion germination to determine the light compensation point (5.2-5.4m) and maximum depth of colonization (4-6m) for S. aloides propagules using in situ incubations and controlled growth experiments. The effects of spring and fall chemical (Diquat) and physical (hand raking) treatments on S. aloides biomass, local macrophyte recovery and community dynamics in the Trent River were also measured. The target of a 75% minimum reduction in S. aloides biomass was not attained using any of the treatment methods and no perceivable recovery of the local plant community was observed. Significant S. aloides regrowth was recorded for both treatment methods regardless of application timing. Author Keywords: herbicide, invasive species, macrophyte, photosynthesis, propagule
Bioremoval of copper and nickel on living and non-living Eugelna gracilis
This study assesses the ability of a unicellular protist, Euglena gracilis, to remove Cu and Ni from solution in mono- and bi-metallic systems. Living Euglena cells and non-living Euglena biomass were examined for their capacity to sorb metal ions. Adsorption isotherms were used in batch systems to describe the kinetic and equilibrium characteristics of metal removal. In living systems results indicate that the sorption reaction occurs quickly (<30 min) in both Cu (II) and Ni (II) mono-metallic systems and adsorption follows a pseudo-second order kinetics model for both metals. Sorption capacity and intensity was greater for Cu than Ni (p < 0.05) and were described by the Freundlich model. In bi-metallic systems sorption of both metals appears equivalent. In non-living systems sorption occurred quickly (10-30 min) and both Cu and Ni equilibrium uptake increased with a concurrent increase of initial metal concentrations. The pseudo-first-order model was applied to the kinetic data and the Langmuir and Freundlich models effectively described single-metal systems. The biosorption capacity of Cu (II) and) was 3x times greater than that of Ni (II). Sorption of one metal in the presence of relatively high concentrations of the other metal was supressed. Generally, it was found that living Euglena remove Cu and Ni more efficiently than non-living Euglena biomass in both mono- and bi-metallic systems. It is anticipated that this work should contribute to the identification of baseline uptake parameters and capacities for Cu and Ni by Euglena as well as to the increasing amount of research investigating sustainable bioremediation. Author Keywords: accumulation, biosorption, Cu, Euglena gracilis, kinetics, Ni
Biosynthesis and impact of cytokinins on growth of the oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus
The oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, is one of the most widely cultivated edible basidiomycetes. It has gained increased attention for its economic, environmental, and medicinal properties. While a lot is known about cytokinins (CKs) and their actions at the molecular and cellular levels in plants, much less is known about the function of CKs in other kingdoms. Cytokinins, which have been detected in several fungal species, play a role in pathogenic attack against plants or during plant growth promotion by plant beneficial microbes; however, the role of CKs in fungal physiology, separate from plant associations remains largely unknown. This thesis focuses on the occurrence of fungal-derived CKs in P. ostreatus when grown in vitro as submerged or aerial mycelium. Cytokinin profiling by UHPLC-HRMS/MS revealed that P. ostreatus produces CKs and that the tRNA degradation pathway is the main source of these molecules. CK dynamics within fungal growth supported previous evidence, which suggested that tRNA degradation products have a role in the physiological development of fungi for which CKs act as fungal growth regulators. A second component of the thesis demonstrated that P. ostreatus responds to exogenous applications of aromatic and isoprenoid CKs and their effects were dependent on the dose and CK type. N6-Benzyladenine (BAP), Kinetin (KIN), N6-isopentenyladenine (iP), and trans-zeatin (tZ) bioassays revealed hormone-type responses (hormesis: biphasic response). At low doses, mycelium growth could be stimulated, whereas, at high doses only inhibitory effects were observed. This stimulation/inhibition was observed whether the measured response was an increase/decrease of aerial mycelium colony diameter, biomass accumulation or a change in mycelium morphology as compared to the controls. Results indicated there is potential to alter mycelium growth and development of P. ostreatus; thus, CKs may play the role of a “mycohormone” and may be specifically helpful for medicinal fungi by increasing growth and efficiency to produce many biologically active substances with valuable medical and environmental applications. Author Keywords: cytokinins, fungal-derived CKs, hormesis, mycelium, mycohormone, Pleurotus ostreatus
Branding of the Prime Minister
From 1949-1957, Prime Minister Louis St. Laurent was the face of the Liberal Party. Party branding was wholly devoted to his friendly, ‘Uncle Louis’ brand image. St. Laurent’s image was manipulated and manufactured without public preconception, establishing the modern tactics of personal branding still used by his successors. This thesis studies the elections of 1949, 1953, and 1957, analysing photos, advertisements, speeches, archival documents, memoirs, newspapers, and other sources to show the development of Liberal branding strategy. It employs political scientist Margaret Scammell’s conceptualization of brand theory, showing how marketers used emotional brand differentiators and rational substantive performance indicators to sell ‘Uncle Louis’ to Canadians. The Liberals used St. Laurent and branding tactics to win two massive majorities in 1949 and 1953, and the Diefenbaker Tories used those same tactics to defeat them in 1957. ‘Uncle Louis’ proved the effectiveness of personal branding and leader-centered campaigns in Canadian politics. Author Keywords: Brand Theory, Canadian Politics, Elections, Liberal Party of Canada, Louis St. Laurent, Political Marketing
Breach, Digital Disruption, the Event
The goal of this dissertation is to formulate a critique of embodiment through the lens of Lacanian psychoanalysis and in the context of digital media and intelligent technologies. Along with psychoanalysis, our research methodology and philosophy are informed by Badiou’s philosophy of the event, Stiegler’s philosophy of technics and infrastructuralism in media studies. Our study aims to uncover and articulate the implicit conditioning by the primordial trauma constitutive of the subject’s encounters with the medium. In our analysis of embodiment, we make extensive use of psychoanalytic concepts such as: the breach, the lack, the signifier, the construction of the object, the object-a, the transitional object, fetishism and phobia. Each of the four parts of the dissertation approaches the topic from a specific angle, such as the theoretical critique of the basic concepts of the subject and object, the function of the metaphor in the context of intelligent technologies, the role of technological infrastructure in the embodiment of the trauma, the construction of a transitional object such as a pop song in the context of technological dystopianism. We demonstrate that the cognitivist presumption concerning the pivotal role of intellectual motivation behind the subjective attachment to information technologies can be significantly shaken from the point of view of the psychoanalytic understanding of drives and jouissance. On the basis of Alain Badiou’s argument, we show the limitations of structurally-determined forms of embodiment considered by psychoanalysis and draw a dividing line between them and the more rare cases of the subjectivation by events suggested by Badiou’s theory. We discuss Badiou’s concept of the work of truth as an advanced alternative to the psychoanalytic concept of the object and the paradigm of the construction of the (transitional) object. We distinguish the Badiouian concept of the event from the idea of technological/digital disruption, on the one hand, and correlate the latter with the problems discussed in psychoanalysis such as the foreclosure of the Name-of-the-Father and the crisis of the paternal metaphor along with the problems of the futurity and the disruption of intergenerational communication discussed by Bernard Stiegler on the other. Author Keywords: Badiou, digital media, Lacan, metaphor, transitional object, work of truth


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Format: 2023/09/28