Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Protecting Sources of Drinking Water for the M'Chigeeng First Nation, Manioulin Island, Ontario
The potential impacts of domestic wastewater (DWW) on the source of drinking water for the M’Chigeeng First Nation were monitored as part of the development of a Source Water Protection plan. During a period of continuous overflow of the Gaaming Wastewater Lagoon serving the community, the chemical tracers, caffeine and sucralose were tracked in West Bay with Passive Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers (POCIS). From the results, we speculated that DWI impacts could have been from three possible DWW sources. POCIS deployed above and below the thermocline indicated a higher mean sucralose concentration of 2.52 ± 1.83 ng/L in the hypolimnion of West Bay relative to mean epilimnetic sucralose concentrations of 0.56 ± 0.02 ng/L, suggesting possible wastewater percolation with an estimated time of travel of 61.5 days. Microbial loads of 200 CFU/100 ml E. coli from the lagoon overflow into Mill Creek decreased to 60 CFU/100 ml before entering West Bay. West Bay’s wastewater assimilative capacity met Provincial Water Quality Objectives in the epilimnion and hypolimnion except for dissolved oxygen in the hypolimnion at 4.16 ± 1.86 mg/L, which is a threat to the onset of hypoxia for fish (i.e. <5 mg/L). Assimilative capacity results support a Fall lagoon discharge. Author Keywords: caffeine, drinking water, Passive Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers (POCIS), sucralose, thermocline, wastewater
Mixed methods approaches in marine mammal science
This thesis explored the contribution of mixed methods approaches to marine mammal science through the use of concurrent and sequential designs to study distribution and feeding ecology of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) in the Arctic region of Nunavik, Quebec, Canada. The study combines Inuit knowledge (IK), collected through semi-directed interviews with Inuit harvesters, and analyses of stable isotopes and trace elements (SI/TE) in baleen plates. A systematic literature review found that mixed methods are increasingly used in marine mammal ecology studies in remote locations, yet are still relatively rare and face a number of challenges. Both IK and SI/TE, indicated that bowhead whales have a seasonal pattern in their distribution and feeding ecology. They are most commonly present in productive nearshore areas in summertime, feeding in areas of great prey diversity, and moving to offshore areas in winter to fast. Mixed methods approaches used in this case study enabled the collection of complementary knowledge about bowhead whale ecology important for local management in a changing climate. This study also shows the value of mixed methods approaches for future marine mammal studies in Nunavik and elsewhere. Author Keywords: Arctic, bowhead whale, distribution, feeding ecology, mixed methods, traditional ecological knowledge

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