Graduate Theses & Dissertations

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“Just Say Yes” - Sexual Consent and Boundary Setting On-and Offlinle
The present study examined the understanding and behaviours relating to sexual consent on, and offline among men who have sex with men (MSM) and heterosexual men internationally using a convergent parallel mixed-methods approach. Men of both sexual orientation groups presented challenges with negotiating sexual consent, and this was especially true if they scored higher on aggressive traits or had previously experienced childhood abuse or an unwanted penetrative sexual act in adulthood. However, from the results as a whole, MSM reported struggle more with regards to consent negotiation for a variety of reasons (e.g. sexual scripts, power dynamics, additional sexual settings, sex-role positioning). Limitations and future directions are discussed. Author Keywords: heterosexual men, men who have sex with men, sexual assault, sexual consent, technology
“It's like getting a new car without the manual”
This study explored teacher infusion of Indigenous curriculum content through interviews with ten non-Indigenous teachers of social studies and history. The interviews centered on teacher perceptions of preparedness to implement Ontario’s recent TRC curriculum revisions, which include more about the contributions, histories, cultures, and perspectives of Indigenous peoples. A brief analysis of Ontario’s First Nation, Métis, and Inuit Education Policy Framework is included, alongside critiques of the Eurocentrism at the heart of education systems. The interviews revealed that many of the teachers were committed to Indigenous education and learning more, but they felt unprepared and lacked resources to teach Indigenous curriculum content with confidence. This study highlighted the critical role of settler teachers in Indigenous education and the importance of teachers undertaking settler unsettling in order to be effective and appropriate in Indigenous curriculum delivery. Individual changes must occur alongside educational system decolonization with a particular focus on teacher preparation. Author Keywords: cognitive imperialism, Indigenous Education, Ontario, settler educator, settler unsettling, TRC curriculum
“I will not use the word reconciliation” – Exploring Settler (Un)Certainty, Indigenous Refusal, and Decolonization through a Life History Project with Jean Koning
This thesis centres on a series of intergenerational life history interviews with and about Jean Koning, a 95-year-old white Settler woman who has engaged in different forms of Indigenous-Settler solidarity work for over fifty years—work that is highly regarded by many Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples in southwestern and central Ontario. I bring Jean’s stories and perspectives, many of which stand in stark contrast to dominant discourses of “reconciliation,” into conversation with scholars who examine Indigenous refusal and Settler (un)certainty. Through this, I attempt to better understand how colonial knowledge structures and ways of thinking operate in practise, how these might be resisted, and how this resistance relates to land repatriation. I argue that a commitment to unsettling uncertainty and to meaningful listening may be required by Settlers in a stand against various colonial ways of thinking, such as cognitive imperialism. Author Keywords: Cognitive imperialism, Decolonization, Indigenous-Settler relations, Life history, Reconciliation, Settler uncertainty
“At least I can feel like I’ve done my job as a mom”
This study examines the household foodwork of low-income mothers in Peterborough, Ontario and considers how community food initiatives (CFIs) such as community gardens and good food box programs can support these women in their efforts to feed their families adequately. I draw on multiple data sources: interviews with representatives from Peterborough CFIs; interviews with and illustrations by 21 local low-income mothers; debrief sessions following participants’ tours of CFIs; and my ongoing involvement with two local food networks. The mothers’ extensive foodwork considerations, strategies, and struggles reflect an engagement with three main ideals that are placed further out of reach through poverty and food insecurity. Women experienced pressure through these ideals: the “good mother,” to take primary responsibility for their children’s well-being through food; the “good consumer,” to participate in society as individual consumers; and the “good food program participant,” to avoid indications of over-reliance on food programs. Each ideal reflects the neoliberal exaltation of self-sufficiency and its flipside, the vilification of dependence. The research results highlight the need for CFIs to focus on the broader, systemic discursive and material challenges that can hamper the foodwork of all low-income mothers, in addition to addressing the immediate needs of their own participants. Towards this goal, Peterborough CFIs employ principles of universality, social inclusion, democratic processes, and broadening of social imaginaries. In their efforts, CFIs must navigate between cultivating collectivity and interdependence on the one hand, and engaging with this familiar, individualizing neoliberal ethos on the other hand. This study provides insights about the subjectivities of low-income mothers that may be useful for CFI programming as well as more analytic examinations of the role and impact of CFIs. It also reveals the common feminization, devaluation, and under resourcing of the food-related work of both mothers and CFIs. In doing so, the study points to the urgent need for broad dialogue and political action regarding poverty, dependence, caring labour, and the roles of citizens and the state in ensuring that households can adequately feed themselves. Author Keywords: Community Food Initiatives, Community Food Programs, Domestic Labour, Food Insecurity, Gendering of Caring Labour, Household Food Work
“A City is Not a Place of Origins”
This thesis explores the work of Black queer authors who write and reproduce cities in their texts. James Baldwin and Dionne Brand create knowable and readable spaces of the cities in which they write. By studying the work of these two authors, this thesis seeks to understand how Black queer people navigate city spaces, and how Black queer authors create a literary imaginary about the cities in which their novels are set. Thus, the cities of New York and Toronto become knowable sites through the novels of Dionne Brand and James Baldwin. Using Black queer theory, Black diaspora theory, and Black literary theory, this thesis engages with the novels, essays, and interviews of James Baldwin and Dionne Brand to determine that urban spaces are both liberatory and traumatic for Black queer people. Author Keywords: Baldwin, Black Queer Studies, Black Women, Brand, Diaspora Studies, Lesbian
wind tunnel based investigation of three-dimensional grain scale saltation and boundary-layer stress partitioning using Particle Tracking Velocimetry
Aeolian transport of sand particles is an important geomorphic process that occurs over a significant portion of the earth’s land surface. Wind tunnel simulations have been used for more than 75 years to advance the understanding of this process; however, there are still several principles that lack validation from direct sampling of the sand particles in flight. Neither the three-dimensional dispersion of, nor the momentum carried by particles in flight have been properly measured. This has resulted in the inability to validate numerical particle dispersion models and the key boundary-layer momentum partitioning model that serves as the framework for understanding the air-sand feedback loop. The primary impediment to these measurements being made is a lack of tools suited for the task. To this end, this PhD aims to improve existing particle tracking technology, thus enabling the collection of particle measurements during wind tunnel experiments that would address the aforementioned knowledge gaps. Through the design and implementation of the Expected Particle Area Searching method, a fully automated particle tracking velocimetry system was developed with the capability to measure within ½ grain diameter of the bed surface under steady state transport conditions. This tool was used to collect the first 3-D data set of particle trajectories, from which it was determined that a mere 1/8th of sand transport is stream aligned and 95% is contained within ± 45o of the mean wind direction. Particles travelling at increasing spanwise angles relative to the stream aligned flow were found to exhibit different impact and ejection velocities and angles. The decrease in the number of particles with increasing height in the saltation cloud, very close to the bed is observed to transition from a power to a linear relation, in contrast to previous literature that observed an exponential decay with coarser vertical resolution. The first direct measurements of particle-borne stress were captured over a range of wind velocities and were compared with earlier fluid stress measurements taken using Laser Doppler Anemometry. In support of established saltation theory, impacting particle momentum is found to contribute strongly to particle entrainment under equilibrium conditions. In opposition to established theory, however, particle-borne stress was found to reach a maximum above the surface and does not match the change in air-borne stress with increasing distance from the surface. Near surface splashed particles, measured herein for the first time, appear to play a greater role in stress partitioning than previously thought. This study suggests that research is needed to investigate the role of bed load transport on stress partitioning, to differentiate between airborne trajectory types, and to develop particle tracking tools for field conditions. Author Keywords: Aeolian Transport, Eolian Transport, Particle Tracking Velocimetry, Saltation, Stress Partitioning, Wind Tunnel Simulation
wind tunnel and field evaluation of the efficacy of various dust suppressants
A series of experiments was designed to assess the relative efficacy of various dust suppressants to suppress PM10 emissions from nepheline syenite tailings. The experiments were conducted in the Trent University Environmental Wind Tunnel, Peterborough, Ontario, and on the tailings ponds at the Unimin Ltd Nephton mine near Havelock, Ontario. Treated surfaces were subjected to particle-free airflow, abrasion with blown sand particles, particle-free airflow after physical disturbance, and were measured independently using a pin penetrometer. In the particle-free wind tunnel tests, three of the surfaces performed well, and PM10 emissions scaled inversely with crust strength. Light bombardment of each surface by saltating sand grains resulted in PM10 emission rates two orders of magnitude higher. All treated surfaces emitted significantly more PM10 after physical disturbance in both the laboratory and field research. The results suggest that the site conditions, inclusive of the potential for dust advection and resuspension, must be taken into account when considering the use of a commercial dust suppressant. Author Keywords: dust suppression, field testing, mine tailings, wind tunnel experiment
third wheel
Population cycles are regular fluctuations in population densities, however, in recent years many cycles have begun to disappear. With Canada lynx this dampening has also been seen with decreasing latitude corresponding to an increase in prey diversity. My study investigates the role of alternate prey on the stability of the lynx-hare cycle by first comparing the functional responses of two sympatric but ecologically distinct predators on a primary and alternate prey. I then populated a three species predator-prey model to investigate the role of alternate prey on population stability. My results showed that alternate prey can promote stability, though they are unlikely to “stop the cycle”. Furthermore, stability offered by alternate prey is contingent on its ability to increase intraspecific competition. My study highlights that population cycles are not governed by a single factor and that future research needs to be cognizant of interactions between alternate prey and intraspecific competition. Author Keywords: alternate prey, Canis latrans, functional response, Lepus americanus, Lynx canadensis, Tamiasciurus hudsonicus
the sex killer drives a panel pin into his ear-hole
I have two goals. One, to offer new insights into Vienna Actionism (VA) and their notorious performances, through Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari’s notion of the body without organs (BwO); and two, not simply to provide descriptions of the Vienna Actionists’ performances, but also to write what I am calling a thesis without organs. Documents from the Vienna Actionists, specifically Muehl’s Leda and the Swan (1964), Brus’ Vienna Walk (1965) and Nitsch’s O.M. Theatre (1960-present), become documents without organs; they are documents that do not simply document original performances, but re-perform original performances while acting as performances themselves. Challenging the notion of live performance as fundamentally separate from its documentation (as performance theorist Peggy Phelan argues) through what Philip Auslander calls the document’s performativity and what Christopher Bedford calls a viral ontology of performance, my thesis becomes a performance in and of itself. A thesis without organs. Keywords: performance, performativity, viral ontology of performance, body without organs, rhizome, dirt, metaphor, metonymy, Vienna Actionism, Gilles Deleuze, Félix Guattari, Peggy Phelan, Philip Auslander, Christopher Bedford, Mary Douglas. Author Keywords: Body without Organs, Performance, Performativity, Vienna Actionism
sustainability of Community-based Water supply Organizations (CWOs)
The world has met the target of halving the number of people without access to improved-drinking water . However, the focus in rural areas (where 83% of the people without access to improved-drinking water live) has been on the construction of infrastructure, rather than on the strengthening of existing local institutions to create a long-term sustainable solution. This research aims to understand what are the necessary characteristics that CWOs, the main rural water supplier institutions around the world, must have to offer safe water continuously and in the long term. The results indicate that to offer such conditions, internal and external characteristic need to coexist. Those characteristics will emerge from case studies analysis in rural and peri-urban areas in Colombia, through interviews, surveys, document reviews, observation exercises, and a comparison with the literature. Internal characteristics include proper infrastructure conditions, user satisfaction, best management practices, social capital, be a development catalyzer, and environmental awareness. External characteristics include easy access to subsidies, efficient communication channels with authorities, continuous training, and environmental legislation/education. This study concludes that enforcing these characteristics will strengthen the existing institutions and can provide a sustainable solution for rural water supply issues. Author Keywords: community-based water supply organizations, costs, management, financial sustainability, rural Colombia, state subsidies, water tariffs
successful invader in expansion
Researchers have shown increasing interest in biological invasions for the associated ecological and economic impacts as well as for the opportunities they offer to study the mechanisms that induce range expansion in novel environments. I investigated the strategies exhibited by invasive species that facilitate range expansion. Invasive populations exhibit shifts in life-history strategy that may enable appropriate responses to novel biotic and abiotic factors encountered during range expansion. The spatio-temporal scales at which these shifts occur are largely unexplored. Furthermore, it is not known whether the observed dynamic shifts represent a consistent biological response of a given species to range shifts, or whether the shifts are affected by the abiotic characteristics of the new systems. I examined the life-history responses of female round gobies Neogobius melanastomus across fine and coarser spatial scales behind the expansion front and investigated whether invasive populations encountering different environmental conditions (Ontario vs France) exhibited similar life-history shifts. In both study systems, I found an increase in reproductive investment at invasion fronts compared to longer established areas at coarse and fine scales. The results suggest a similar response to range shifts, or a common invasion strategy independent of environmental conditions experienced, and highlight the dynamic nature of an invasive population’s life history behind the invasion front. The second part of my research focused on the development of an appropriate eDNA method for detecting invasive species at early stages of invasion to enable early detection and rapid management response. I developed a simple, inexpensive device for collecting water samples at selected depths for eDNA analysis, including near the substrate where eDNA concentration of benthic species is likely elevated. I also developed a protocol to optimise DNA extraction from water samples that contain elevated concentration of inhibiters, in particular near-bottom samples. Paired testing of eDNA and conventional surveys was used to monitor round goby expansion along its invasion pathway. Round gobies were detected in more sites with eDNA, permitting earlier, more accurate, upstream detection of the expansion front. My study demonstrated the accuracy and the power of using eDNA survey method to locate invasion fronts. Author Keywords: Age-specific reproductive investment, DNA extraction, Energy allocation, Fecundity, Invasion front, Range expansion
silicon sol-gel approach to the development of forensic blood substitutes
The research and development of synthetic blood substitutes is a reported need within the forensic community. This work contributes to the growing body of knowledge in bloodstain pattern analysis by offering a materials science approach to designing, producing and testing synthetic forensic blood substitutes. A key deliverable from this research is the creation of a robust silicon-based material using the solution-gelation technique that has been validated for controlled passive drip and spatter simulation. The work investigates the physical properties (viscosity, surface tension and density) of forensic blood substitute formulations and describes the similarity in the spreading dynamics of the optimized material to whole human blood. It then explores how blood and other fluids behave in impact simulation using high-speed video analysis and supports the use of the optimized material for spatter simulation. Finally, the work highlights the practical value of the material as an educational tool for both basic and advanced bloodstain experimentation and training. Author Keywords: bloodstain pattern analysis, forensic blood substitutes, high-speed video analysis, silicon solution-gelation chemistry, thin-film deposition, training and education

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