Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Monitoring and fate of selected tire-derived organic contaminants
Road runoff is a vector for the transport of potentially toxic chemicals into receiving waters. In this study, selected tire-derived chemicals were monitored in surface waters of rivers adjacent to two high traffic highways in the Greater Toronto Area in Ontario, Canada. Composite samples were collected from the Don River and Highland Creek in the GTA during 5 hydrological events that occurred in the period between early October 2019 and late March 2020, as well as an event in August 2020. Grab samples were collected from these rivers during a period of low flow in August 2020, as well as during a storm event in July of 2020. Analysis was performed using ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography with high resolution mass spectrometric detection (UHPLC-HRMS). Hexamethoxymethylmelamine (HMMM), a cross-linker of tire material, was detected at elevated concentrations (> 1 µg/L) during rain events in the fall and winter of 2019-20 and during a period of rapid snow melt in early March of 2020. These samples were also analyzed for the tire additive, 6PPD, and its oxidation by-product, 6PPD-quinone, as well as 1,3-diphenylguanidine (DPG). In many samples collected from the Don River and Highland Creek during storm events, the estimated concentrations of 6PPD-quinone exceeded the reported LC50 of 0.8 µg/L for Coho salmon exposed to this compound. Temporal samples collected at 3-hour intervals throughout rain event the October 2020 showed that there was a delay of several hours after the start of the event before these compounds reached their peak concentrations. In addition, 26 candidate transformation products and precursor compounds of HMMM were monitored; 15 of these compounds were detected in surface waters in the GTA. The maximum total concentration of this class of methoxymethylmelamine compounds in surface water samples was estimated to be 18 µg/L. There is limited knowledge about the properties of HMMM, its precursor contaminants, and its transformation compounds, as well as their fate in the environment. COSMO-RS solvation theory was used to estimate the physico-chemical properties of HMMM and its derivatives. Using the estimated values for these properties (e.g., solubility, vapour pressure, log Kow) as inputs to the Equilibrium Criterion (EQC) fugacity-based multimedia model, the compounds were predicted to readily partition into aqueous media, with mobility in water increasing with the extent of loss of methoxymethyl groups from HMMM. Overall, this study contributes to the growing literature indicating that potentially toxic tire-wear compounds are transported via road runoff into urban surface waters. In addition, this study provides insight into the environmental behaviour of HMMM and its transformation products. Author Keywords: 6PPD-quinone, COSMOtherm, Fugacity, Hexamethoxymethylmelamine, Road runoff, Tire wear

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