Graduate Theses & Dissertations

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American Acropolis, American Ruins
Since 1979, photographer and sociologist Camilo José Vergara has taken repeat photographs of American cities in decline, focusing on evolving landscapes of postindustrial decay. Vergara's images subscribe to an aesthetic of ruin while providing a record of America's crumbling ghettos rooted in social documentary concerns. Vergara's work diverges from the ahistorical tendencies of contemporary ruin porn photography: by challenging the photograph's temporal stasis Vergara bears witness to the ongoing reality of disenfranchisement, assembling an archive that takes up the Benjaminian task of doing history in images. Vergara's photographs challenge standard photojournalistic portrayals of violence, particularly the ways in which `violent' African American and Hispanic inner city populations have been erroneously cast as the cause of their own economic misfortune. The Invincible Cities website assists Vergara in drawing attention to forgotten places but also complicates his mandate to engage outside viewers by distancing them from the real-­world environments his photographs portray. Author Keywords: Camilo José Vergara, imagistic history, postindustrial decline, repeat photography, ruin porn, Walter Benjamin
Carbon and Nitrogen Isotope Changes in Streams along an Agricultural Gradient
Nitrogen is a major constituent of agricultural fertilizers, and nitrogen inputs to stream water via runoff and groundwater lead to a variety of negative environmental impacts. In order to quantify the movement of nitrogen through aquatic food webs, fourteen streams with varying land uses across South-Central Ontario were sampled for two species of fish, freshwater mussels, and water for measurement of isotope ratios of δ15N and δ13C. I found that nitrogen isotopes in fish, water, and mussels were related to the percentage of riparian monoculture, and that carbon isotopes were unrelated to monoculture. Though all species were enriched as monoculture increased, the rate of δ15N enrichment as monoculture increased did not vary between species. This study has improved our understanding of how monoculture affects nutrient enrichment in stream food webs, and assesses the validity of using nitrogen isotopes to measure trophic positions of aquatic organisms across an environmental gradient. Author Keywords: agriculture, fish, food webs, nitrogen, stable isotopes, streams
Scientificity of Psychology and the Categorical Paradigm of Mental Illness
There is little research devoted to exploring psychology's historical and discursive development. Psychological knowledge is generally presented as the contributions of individuals, but without context. The social, political, and economic aspects of psychology's development are scarcely discussed, including how the discipline came to be considered a science. This thesis project explored the history of the development of psychology. Specifically, psychology's claim to scientificity via the appropriation of the medical model of disease, and accordingly, the instantiation of the categorical paradigm of mental illness were examined. The discontinuous events that shaped psychology and its hallmark of scientificity were explored, including extensive concept transformations, political agendas, and marketing strategies. These practices were then explored in a practical way using the conception of clinical depression and the role of antidepressants as the first-line treatment for depression in the USA. This exploration revealed psychology's socio-historical contingencies and its agenda of prediction and control. Author Keywords: Categorical Paradigm, Concept Transformations, Historicity, Knowledge Products, Psychology, Scientificity
Seasonal variation in nutrient and particulate inputs and outputs at an urban stormwater pond in Peterborough, Ontario
Stormwater ponds (SWPs) are a common feature in new urban developments where they are designed to minimize runoff peaks from impervious surfaces and retain particulate matter. As a consequence, SWPs can be efficient at retaining particle-bound nutrients, but may be less efficient at retaining nutrients that are present primarily in the dissolved form, like nitrogen (N). However, the forms of nutrients (e.g. particulate vs. dissolved) likely differ with hydrologic and seasonal conditions and few studies have examined year-round differences in nutrient forms and concentrations at urban SWPs. In order to contrast total suspended solids (TSS), phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) levels between low and high flow conditions, sampling was conducted at an urban SWP in Peterborough, ON between November 2012 and October 2013. Only an increase in TSS levels at the outflow between low and high flow conditions was observed, as well as a decrease in TSS levels at the outflow compared to Inflow 1 under low flow conditions. Nitrate-N (NO3-N) was the dominant form of N entering the pond under all flow conditions, whereas the fraction of total-P (TP) that was particulate increased under high flow conditions. Nevertheless, the dissolved fraction of TP was consistently high in these urban inlets. Only NO3-N was significantly greater in the inflows than outflow and only under low flow conditions. Increases in the proportions of organic-N and ammonium-N in the outlet suggest that biological processing is important for N retention. Author Keywords: nitrogen, Ontario, phosphorus, stormwater ponds, total suspended solids
"Learning to Be Mad, In a Dream"
The Beat Generation shaped, and was shaped by, the post-WWII containment culture that arose in 1950s America. This so-called cultural containment reflected the social, political, and economic factors that were unique to the post-WWII period and are often considered concurrent to post-war McCarthyism, which promoted a national ideology of exclusionism that was foremost opposed to the threat of Communism. I propose in my thesis that containment was a major influence in the rhetoric of resistance that is found within the most prominent works of the Generation. My thesis also looks at the how Beat literature shifted from the counterculture to the mainstream and the impact that celebrity had on the Generation. When the Beats achieved literary fame their counterculture represented the forefront of the New Left and was synonymous with succeeding protest cultures of the 1960s. Author Keywords: Beat Generation, Cold War, Containment Culture, McCarthyism, Postmodernism, Second Wave Feminism
Fate of Silver Nanoparticles in Lake Mesocosms
The fate of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in surface waters determines the ecological risk of this emerging contaminant. In this research, the fate of AgNPs in lake mesocosms was studied using both a continuous (i.e. drip) and one-time (i.e. plug) dosing regime. AgNPs were persistent in the tested lake environment as there was accumulation in the water column over time in drip mesocosms and slow dissipation from the water column (half life of 20 days) in plug mesocosms. In drip mesocosms, AgNPs were found to accumulate in the water column, periphtyon, and sediment according to loading rate; and, AgNP coating (PVP vs. CT) had no effect on agglomeration and dissolution based on filtration analysis. In plug mesocosms, cloud point extraction (CPE), single-particle-inductively coupled mass spectroscopy (spICP-MS), and asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4-ICP-MS) confirmed the temporal dissolution of AgNPs into Ag+ over time; however, complexation is expected to reduce the toxicity of Ag+ in natural waters. Author Keywords: AF4-ICP-MS, cloud point extraction, fate, mesocosms, silver nanoparticles, SP-ICP-MS
Motivating Policy Responses to Climate Change
This research investigates urban climate governance through a case study of climate change adaptation policy making in the Canadian municipality of Vancouver, British Columbia (BC). It investigates the context in which the City of Vancouver was motivated to develop its climate change adaptation strategy (CCAS) by exploring the motivating factors and drivers behind the formulation of this plan. The research approach involved content analysis of policy documents underlying the CCAS as well as interviews with key politicians and policy makers familiar with the strategy. I conceptualize the development of the CCAS using Kingdon's Multiple Streams Framework, leading me to conclude that the convergence of three streams, namely: 1) knowledge of local climate change impacts and their cost to city assets, 2) political leadership and 3) green policy coordination in the City of Vancouver, created an opportunity that was seized upon by policy champions to address adaptation. Author Keywords: adapting cities to climate change, climate change adaptation policy, climate change adaptation policy formulation, local climate governance, municipal adaptation plan, urban climate governance
gi-mi-ni-go-wi-ni-nan o-gi-ma-wi-win zhigo o-gi-ma-win (The gifts of traditional leadership and governance)
ni' o-nah-ko-nah ah-di-so-kah-nahg zhigo di-bah-ji-mo-wi-nan g'dah mi-kwe-ni-mah-nahn obwandiacbun (nigig), tecumthabun (mizhibizhi), miinwaa shingwaukbun (ah-ji-jawk) (I ceremonially call upon the stories, the sacred and spiritual narratives and stories of personal experience... In the spirit of obwandiac, tecumtha and shingwauk) gi-mi-ni-go-wi-ni-nan o-gi-ma-wi-win zhigo o-gi-ma-win (The gifts of traditional leadership and traditional governance) explores anishinabe o-gi-ma-wi-win (traditional leadership and to be esteemed) from the point of view of obwandiac (nigig) in 1763, tecumtha (mizhibizhi) and shingwauk (ah-ji-hawk) in 1812 and 1850 respectively. It also examines the political and social significance of anishinabe o-gi-ma-win (traditional governance) and the n'swi-ish-ko-day-kawn anishinabeg o'dish-ko-day-kawn (Three Fires Confederacy) during the time of these esteemed leaders. The use of our ah-di-so-kah-nahg (sacred and spiritual stories), di-bah-ji-mo-wi-nan (stories of personal experience and reminiscences) and ah-way-chi-gay-wi-nan (moral stories) provides the opportunity to show how anishinabe people used different narratives to ah-way-chi-gay-win (teach by telling stories). In listening to these personal and intimate stories we have an opportunity to understand and explore these concepts of o-gi-ma-wi-win (traditional leadership and to be esteemed) and o-gi-ma-win (traditional governance). The first layer to this distinct way of knowing embodies anishinabe nah-nah-gah-dah-wayn-ji-gay-win (how we come to think this way about our reality and epistemology) and is expressed to us within our gah-wi-zi-maw-ji-say-muh-guhk (creation and stories of origin) and miskew ah-zha-way-chi-win (blood memory and the act of flowing). It states explicitly that we have always known where we came from, who we are, and how we fit into this world. anishinabe i-nah-di-zi-win (our way of being and way of life and ontology) lends voice to the second layer of anishinabe kayn-daw-so-win (traditional knowledge), which defines the responsibilities and expectations of anishinabe society, leadership and governance. Our ni-zhwa-sho gi-ki-nah-mah-gay-wi-nan (seven teachings), ni-zhwa-sho o-na-sho-way-wi-nan (seven sacred laws) and the relationship of the do-daim-mahg (clan system) are described within anishinabemowin, the language of our ceremonies and of the jeeskahn (shake tent). Harry Bone (2011)1, an elder from Keeseekoowenin First Nation suggests that ah-zhi-kay-ni-mo-nahd-a-di-sid bay-mah-di-sid (how we use our way of doing, thinking, ceremony and spirituality to find answers and methodology) represents a third layer that provides us with the ways and means to help us understand the essence of anishinabe nah-nah-gah-dah-wayn-ji-gay-win (how we come to think this way about our reality and epistemology and i-nah-di-zi-win (our way of being and way of life and ontology). This represents the literal and metaphoric o-dah-bah-ji-gahn (sacred bundle) and traditional approach that provides this narrative with the means to explore the ideas of leadership and governance from within a traditional construct. He adds that our spirituality and manitou kay-wi-nan (ceremonies) will be clearly defined and shared within this o-dah-bah-ji-ji-gahn (sacred bundle). It helps establish the spiritual core for this narrative. These anishinabe approaches to methodology (intimate conversations, family history and ceremony) are used to tell a story that mirrors the academic construct of interviews and document analysis. Therefore, the o-dah-bah-ji-gahn (sacred bundle) provides the nay-nahn-do-jee-kayn-chi-gayd (to dig around and research) tools to have this discussion exploring the traditional construct of anishinabe o-gi-ma-wi-win (traditional leadership and to be esteemed) and o-gi-ma-win (traditional governance). Lastly, it is important to understand that this traditional approach shows how these narratives are in-and-of-themselves powerful strategies in understanding anishinabe ah-yah-win (way of being and existence) and gah-gi-bi-i-zhi-say-mah-guhk (history). mii i'i-way anishinabe i-zhi-chi-gay-win (This is the anishinabe way) zhigo mii'iw eta-go o-way neen-gi-kayn-dahn zhigo ni-gi-noon-dah-wah (This is as much as I know and have heard) 1 Bone, Harry (Personal Communication) 2011. Author Keywords:
Development and Use of Passive Samplers for Monitoring Dissolved and Nanoparticulate Silver in the Aquatic Environment
Silver nanoparticles (nAg) are the largest and fastest growing class of nanomaterials, and are a concern when released into aquatic environments even at low μg L-1+). Diffusive gradient in thin films (DGT) with a thiol-modified resin were used to detect labile silver and carbon nanotubes (CNT-sampler) were used to measure nAg. Laboratory uptake experiments in lake water provided an Ag+ DGT diffusion coefficient of 3.09 x 10 -7 cm2s-1 and CNT sampling rates of 24.73, 5.63, 7.31 mL day-1, for Ag+, citrate-nAg and PVP-nAg, respectively. The optimized passive samplers were deployed in mesocosms dosed with nAg. DGT samplers provided estimated Ag+ concentrations ranging from 0.15 to 0.98 μg L-1 and CNT-samplers provided nAg concentrations that closely matched measured concentrations in water filtered at 0.22 μm. Author Keywords: ICP-MS, mesocosms, nanoparticles, nanosilver, passive sampling
Widespread changes in growth, diet and depth distribution of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) in the Great Lakes are linked to invasive dreissenid mussels
Recent declines in growth and condition of Great Lakes' lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) have been linked to ecosystem-wide changes stemming from the invasion of dreissenid mussels. To test the influence of invasive mussels on this commercially important coregonid species, we collected archived scale samples from ten Great Lake locations and analyzed long-term changes in growth rates, delta 13C and delta 15N stable isotope ratios before and after mussel establishment. There was a decrease in pre-maturation growth after establishment in all four locations where we examined back-calculated growths. In six of the seven locations with dreissenid populations, a significant increase in delta 13C and a significant decrease in delta 15N was found. In dreissenid-absent locations of Lake Superior, we did not see changes in growth or isotope ratios indicative of a major regime shift. Observed shifts in isotopic signatures provide evidence for an increased reliance on nearshore food sources and shallower depth distribution as a result of dreissenids, which likely contributed to lowered growth of lake whitefish. Author Keywords: Diporeia, Dreissenids, food web, Great Lakes, invasive species, lake whitefish
THE PROPENSITY TOWARD EXTREMIST MIND-SET AS PREDICTED BY PERSONALITY, MOTIVATION, AND SELF-CONSTRUAL
ABSTRACT The Propensity Toward Extremist Mind-Set as Predicted by Personality, Motivation, and Self-Construal Nick Fauset Multivariate regression analyses were used to determine the effects of Personality (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness), Motivation (External, Amotivation, Intrinsic, and Identified), and Self-Construal (Independent and Interdependent) on three domains of Extremist Mind-Set (Proviolence, Vile World, and Divine Power). Participants consisted of first year undergraduate students (209 females, 76 males) enrolled in Introductory Psychology (N=279) and/or Introductory Economics (N=7), whom participated for course credit. The Motivation measure was problematic for students to complete and this variable was dropped from the model due to missing data. Decreases in Neuroticism, Openness, Agreeableeness, and Interdependent were significantly correlated with increases in Proviolence. Decreases in Agreeableness were correlated with increases in Vile World. Decreases in Openness, and increases in Agreeableness and Interdependent were significantly correlated with increases in Divine Power. These observations provide an interesting perspective on the types of Canadian undergraduate students who are more likely to score highly on measures of Extremism. Keywords: Militant Extremist Mental Mind-Set, Extremism, Personality, Five Factor Model, Motivation, Intrinsic, Extrinsic, Self-Construal, Independent, Interdependent Author Keywords: Extremism, Militant Extremist Mental Mind-Set, Motivation, Personality, Self-Construal
Purification and Identification of Selenium-containing C-phycocyanin from Spirulina
Selenium is an essential trace nutrient to many organisms, yet in high concentrations it is toxic. Organic selenium is more bioavailable to aquatic biota than inorganic selenium, but is usually found in much lower concentrations. Algae are known to biotransform inorganic selenium into several organo-selenium compounds, but it is unknown whether any of these bioaccumulate in the food chain. In this study, selenium was incorporated into the methionine residues of an algal photosynthetic protein, c-phycocyanin from Spirulina spp. The extent of selenium incorporation was quantified by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and the protein was identified using electrospray mass spectrometry (ES-MS). C-phycocyanin was isolated and purified from Spirulina with a final recovery of 20-30 % of the total c-phycocyanin present. Selenomethionine replaced 92.8% ± 1.22 of the methionine residues in c-phycocyanin when grown in 2.5 ppm sodium selenite. ES-MS was used to obtain protein spectra, and pure c-phycocyanin was identified. Data of full scans provided estimated masses of both protein subunits--α-chain measured at 18,036 Da; β-chain measured at 19,250 Da--close to the theoretical masses. Protein fragmentation by collision-induced dissociation and electron capture dissociation provided approximately 52 % amino acid sequence match with c-phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis. This study demonstrates the incorporation of selenium into an algal protein, and the identification of c-phycocyanin using electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. Author Keywords:

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