Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Expression and characterization of cytochrome b5 from Giardia lamblia
Giardia lamblia is an intestinal parasite found globally in freshwater systems that is responsible for endemic outbreaks of infectious diarrhea. As a unicellular parasite that lacks mitochondria, a respiratory chain and lives in the anaerobic environment of its host's intestine, Giardia was assumed for decades to lack heme proteins. However, its genome encodes several putative heme proteins, including three with sequence similarity to the cytochrome b5 family, referred to as Giardia cytochromes b5 (gCYTb5). Recombinant expression of one of these genes (gCYTb5-I), results in a protein (17-kDa) that is isolated with noncovalently bound heme. Resonance Raman and UV-visible spectra of gCYTb5-I in oxidized and reduced states resemble those of microsomal cytochrome b5, while sequence alignment and homology modelling supports a structure in which a pair of invariant histidine residues act as axial ligands to the heme iron. The reduction potential of gCYTb5-I measured by cyclic voltammetry is -165 mV vs the standard hydrogen electrode and is relatively low compared to those of other family members. The amino- and carboxy-terminal sequences that flank the central heme-binding core of the gCYTb5 are highly charged and do not occur in other family members. An 11-kDa core gCYTb5-I variant lacking these flanking sequences was also able to bind heme; however, we observe very poor expression of this truncated protein as compared to the full-length protein. Author Keywords: b-type cytochrome, cytochrome b5, electron transfer protein, Giardia intestinalis, heme/heam protein, spectroelectrochemistry

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