Graduate Theses & Dissertations


wind tunnel and field evaluation of the efficacy of various dust suppressants
A series of experiments was designed to assess the relative efficacy of various dust suppressants to suppress PM10 emissions from nepheline syenite tailings. The experiments were conducted in the Trent University Environmental Wind Tunnel, Peterborough, Ontario, and on the tailings ponds at the Unimin Ltd Nephton mine near Havelock, Ontario. Treated surfaces were subjected to particle-free airflow, abrasion with blown sand particles, particle-free airflow after physical disturbance, and were measured independently using a pin penetrometer. In the particle-free wind tunnel tests, three of the surfaces performed well, and PM10 emissions scaled inversely with crust strength. Light bombardment of each surface by saltating sand grains resulted in PM10 emission rates two orders of magnitude higher. All treated surfaces emitted significantly more PM10 after physical disturbance in both the laboratory and field research. The results suggest that the site conditions, inclusive of the potential for dust advection and resuspension, must be taken into account when considering the use of a commercial dust suppressant. Author Keywords: dust suppression, field testing, mine tailings, wind tunnel experiment
impact of selection harvesting on soil properties and understory vegetation in canopy gaps and skid roads in central Ontario
Tree harvesting alters nutrient cycling and removes nutrients held in biomass, and as a result nutrient availability may be reduced, particularly in naturally oligotrophic ecosystems. Selection harvesting is a silvicultural technique limited to tolerant hardwood forests where individual or small groups of trees are removed creating a “gap” in the forest canopy. In order for harvesting machinery to gain access to these individual trees, trees are felled to create pathways, known as skid roads. The objective of this study was to characterize differences in soil chemical and physical properties in gaps, skid roads and uncut areas following selection harvesting in central Ontario as well as documenting differences in the understory vegetation community and sugar maple (Acer saccharum) seedlings chemical composition post harvest. First year seedlings were collected for elemental analysis from unharvested areas, canopy gaps, and skid roads in 2014, eight months after harvesting. In 2015, first and second year sugar maple seedlings were collected. Soil bulk density and water infiltration were measured in the three areas of the catchment as well as soil moisture, organic matter content, exchangeable base cations, and net nitrification. Seedlings in the disturbed sites had lower concentrations of Mg, K, P, and N compared with unharvested sites and soil nitrification was significantly lower in the skid roads. Water infiltration rates in the gap and skid roads were slower than the control and concentrations of metals (e.g. Fe, Al, Ca) and litter mass increased in litter bags deployed over 335 days, likely reflecting an increase in soil erosion in the skid roads. Understory vegetation was markedly different amongst sites, particularly the dominance of Carex spp. in the skid roads. The sustainability of industrial logging is dependent on successful tree regeneration, however, increased soil compaction, establishment and growth of grasses and shrubs, as well as low nutrient concentrations in seedlings may ultimately restrict forest succession. Author Keywords: Canadian Shield, nitrification, selection harvesting, soil compaction, sugar maple seedling, understory vegetation
effects of in-stream woody debris from selective timber harvest on nutrient pools and dynamics within Precambrian Shield streams
Timber harvest can influence the rate of transfer of organic matter from the terrestrial catchment to streams, which may have both direct and indirect effects on in-stream nutrient pools and dynamics. In the interest of developing sustainable forestry practices, the continued study of the effects of forestry on nutrient dynamics in aquatic systems is paramount, particularly in sensitive nutrient-poor oligotrophic systems. The goal of this study was to investigate the impacts of harvest-related woody debris on stream nutrient status in streams located in the Canadian Shield region of south-central Ontario. Surveys showed greater large (> 10 cm) and small (< 10 cm) woody debris dry masses and associated nutrient pools in streams located in recently (2013) selectively harvested catchments, when compared with catchments not harvested for at least 20 years. Experimental releases of flagging tape underlined the importance of woody debris as a mechanism of coarse particulate organic matter (CPOM) retention. Sediment surveys showed a significant exponential decline in both OM content and nutrients associated with coarse sediment with distance upstream from debris dams. Laboratory leaching experiments suggest that fresh woody debris may be an important short-term source of water-soluble nutrients, particularly phosphorus and potassium. This study suggests that woody debris from timber harvest is both a direct and indirect source of nutrients, as trapped wood and leaves that accumulate behind debris dams can augment stream nutrient export over long time periods. Author Keywords: nutrient leaching, nutrient pools, organic matter retention, selection harvest, southern Ontario, woody debris
effects of environmental variables and dissolved organic matter characteristics on the diffusion coefficient of dissolved organic matter using diffusive gradients in thin films
The efficacy of the diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) passive samplers to provide accurate measurements of free metal ions and those complexed with dissolved organic matter (DOM) was investigated. DOM controls the diffusive properties of DOM-complexed metal species in natural systems. Knowing the diffusion coeiffiecent (D) for DOM of different molecular weights (MW) and the major environmental variables influencing D is critical in developing the use of DGT passive samplers and understanding labile species. D and MW were determined for natural and standard DOM. No noticeable changes in DOM MW were observed during the diffusion process, suggesting that DOM remains intact following diffusion across the diffusive gel. Data analysis revealed that MW had the greatest influence on D, with a negative relationship between D and MW, except in tidal areas where ionic strength influence on D was significant. This study provides further characterization of the variables influencing D using the DGT technique. Author Keywords: Diffusion coefficient, Diffusive gradients in thin films, Dissolved organic matter, Flow field-flow fractionation, Principal Component Analysis, UV-Vis Spectroscopy
effects of Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM) sources on Pb2+, Zn2+ and Cd2+ binding
Metal binding to dissolved organic matter (DOM) determines metal speciation and strongly influences potential toxicity. The understanding of this process, however, is challenged by DOM source variation, which is not always considered by most existing metal speciation models. Source determines the molecular structure of DOM, including metal binding functional groups. This study has experimentally showed that the allochthonous-dominant DOM (i.e. more aromatic and humic) consistently has higher level of Pb binding than the autochthonous-dominant DOM (i.e. more aliphatic and proteinaceous) by more than two orders of magnitude. This source-discrimination, however, is less noticeable for Zn and Cd, although variation still exceeds a factor of four for both metals. The results indicate that metal binding is source-dependent, but the dependency is metal-specific. Accordingly, metal speciation models, such as the Windermere Humic Aqueous Model (WHAM), needs to consider DOM source variations. The WHAM input of active fraction of DOM participating in metal binding (f) is sensitive to DOM source. The commonly-used f = 0.65 substantially overestimated the Pb and Zn binding to autochthonous-dominant DOM, indicating f needs to be adjusted specifically. The optimal f value (fopt) linearly correlates with optical indexes, showing a potential to estimate fopt using simple absorbance and/or fluorescence measurements. Other DOM properties not optically-characterized may be also important to determine fopt, such as thiol, which shows strong affinity to most toxic metals and whose concentrations are appreciably high in natural waters (< 0.1 to 400 nmol L-1). Other analytical techniques rather than Cathodic Stripping Voltammetry (CSV) are required to accurately quantify thiol concentration for DOM with concentration > 1 mg L-1. To better explain the DOM-source effects, the conditional affinity spectrum (CAS) was calculated using a Fully Optimized ContinUous Spectrum (FOCUS) method. This method not only provides satisfactory goodness-of-fit, but also unique CAS solution. The allochthonous-dominant DOM consistently shows higher Pb affinity than autochthonous-dominant DOM. This source-discrimination is not clearly observed for Zn and Cd. Neither the variability of affinity nor capacity can be fully explained by the variability of individual DOM properties, indicating multiple properties may involve simultaneously. Together, the results help improve WHAM prediction of metal speciation, and consequently, benefit geochemical modelling of metal speciation, such as Biotic Ligand Model for predicting metal toxicity. Author Keywords: Dissolved organic matter, Metal binding, Source, Windermere Humic Aqueous Model
Using environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding to assess aquatic plant communities
Environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding targets sequences with interspecific variation that can be amplified using universal primers allowing simultaneous detection of multiple species from environmental samples. I developed novel primers for three barcodes commonly used to identify plant species, and compared amplification success for aquatic plant DNA against pre-existing primers. Control eDNA samples of 45 plant species showed that species-level identification was highest for novel matK and preexisting ITS2 primers (42% each); remaining primers each identified between 24% and 33% of species. Novel matK, rbcL, and pre-existing ITS2 primers combined identified 88% of aquatic species. The novel matK primers identified the largest number of species from eDNA collected from the Black River, Ontario; 21 aquatic plant species were identified using all primers. This study showed that eDNA metabarcoding allows for simultaneous detection of aquatic plants including invasive species and species-at-risk, thereby providing a biodiversity assessment tool with a variety of applications. Author Keywords: aquatic plants, biodiversity, bioinformatics, environmental DNA (eDNA), high-throughput sequencing, metabarcoding
Understanding the establishment of Typha spp. in North America using population genetics and common garden studies
There are three cattail (Typha) taxa in Canada: T. latifolia (native), T. angustifolia (introduced), and their hybrid T. x glauca. The latter is invasive in regions around the Laurentian Great Lakes, and I investigated the potential role that commercial suppliers may be playing in the introduction of non-native Typha by comparing genotypes of North American, European, and commercially available plants. I found that Ontario garden centres are importing both hybrids and non-native lineages of T. angustifolia into Canada, but was unable to identify the provenance of T. latifolia. I also investigated the possibility that the hybrid cattail leaf litter shade and leachate influences germination and early growth of the parental species of the hybrids. Using three common garden experiments, I found that T. x glauca leaf litter suppresses germination rates of the three taxa. In the early seedling growth experiment, plant performance varied by taxa, and for the competition experiment there were no intra- or interspecific competition or treatment effects on the performance of plants. Overall, my research identified a potential mechanism allowing T. x glauca to dominate wetlands, and also shows that non-native lineages are being introduced into Canada through commercial trade Author Keywords: Competition, Germination, Non-native lineages, Plant nurseries, Seedling Growth, Typha spp.
Tracking Mercury and Mercury Stable Isotopes Throughout the Wabigoon/English River System
In the Wabigoon/English River system, mercury concentrations downstream from Dryden, ON, where there was a former chlor-alkali plant, remain elevated in sediments and biota. Understanding the current extent and severity of mercury contamination downstream from the former chlor-alkali plant is of great interest in furthering the clean-up of mercury within the traditional territory of Asubpeeschoseewagong Netum (Grassy Narrows) First Nation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the current level and extent of mercury contamination within sediments, crayfish, Hexagenia mayflies, yellow perch, spottail shiner and walleye in the Wabigoon/English River system. An additional objective was to use mercury stable isotope analysis to distinguish between legacy mercury from the former chlor-alkali plant and mercury from geogenic sources. Mercury contamination within surface sediments and biota at locations as far as 178 kms downstream of the historical source of mercury contamination are elevated relative to the reference lake, Wabigoon Lake. Isotope ratios in young of the year fish and sediments collected from within the system were distinct from fish from the reference lake, Wabigoon Lake, indicating that anthropogenic mercury contamination is distinguishable from geogenic mercury. Author Keywords:
Trace Metal Geochemistry in Peatlands
Peatlands can be found widely across all latitudes and play a significant role in global cycles within the earth’s biosphere. The anoxic conditions in peatlands promotes the accumulation of organic matter through decreased rates of decomposition and the storage of certain elements, which have received contaminant loading over the course of human existence, with significant increases occurring during the period of industrialization. We assessed global patterns of metal enrichment in peatlands in 439 cores distributed across 5 continents and 21 countries and measured 35 elements by depth increments and by peatland type. Global patterns in enrichment factors (EF’s) were determined for all metals with the majority of metals being found to have a median EF < 2 indicating relatively minor enrichment. Principal component analysis indicated EF’s of 6 metals (Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn), 2 metalloids (As and Sb) and Se in the upper peat horizon had similar spatial patterns among peatlands and these elements had generally the highest EF’s with many cores exceeding EF >10 and some having EF values >100. Significant differences in EF’s were found for these 9 “pollution” elements by peatland type and to a greater extent by geographic region, with higher EF values typically occurring in Europe and North America. Enrichment factors for most elements exhibited weak but significant positive correlations with modelled [1850 – present] S deposition. Estimated pools for the “pollution metals” within the 0 - 40 cm depth varied considerably, with median global pools in peat ranging from 12.9 mg m-2 (Sb) to 439 mg m-2 (Zn) for these 9 metals. Climate changes presents a significant risk to global peatland geochemistry due to expected changes in hydrologic regimes, resulting in potentially increased metal mobility though drought-induced peatland acidification, with historic areas previously impacted by industrial activities presenting the greatest risk of metal release to downstream receiving environments. Using a case study, we examined the impact of simulated 30-day drought on pore water chemistry at six sites in a peatland complex in Elliot Lake Ontario that were historically impacted by uranium (U) mining activities. All sites responded similarly to simulated drought with pore water pH significantly declining. The decline in pore water pH was likely due to increasing sulphate (SO42-) concentrations, which accompanied large increases in Al, Ni, Cu, Pb, Zn, and U. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) increased, which may further enhance Al, Cu, and U mobility as these metals are strongly complexed by organic acids. Metal partitioning (Kd) values could be significantly predicted by pH and DOC although the strength of the relationship varied considerably among sites. Multiple linear regression and the inclusion of SO4-2 improved predictions, indicating that declines in pH as a result of SO4-2 and H+ production primarily governs metals and U partitioning in peatland soils. The results from both studies show that metal enrichment in global peatlands is highly variable, with northern peatlands in industrialized areas presenting the greatest risk of metal release to downstream surface waters based on expected hydrologic impacts from climate change due to historical and on-going metal and S deposition. Author Keywords: Acidification, Climate Change, Drought, Enrichment Factors, Global, Peatlands
Temporal variation of dissolved organic matter and diffusive gradient in thin films-labile mercury in the Quesnel river, BC, and the Goose Creek tributary of Churchill river, MB
This study examined dissolved organic matter (DOM) and labile Mercury (from diffusive gradient in thin films (DGT)) in the Quesnel river, British and the Goose creek tributary of the Churchill river, Manitoba. DOM properties were measured with optical measurements of absorption coefficient (a254), spectral slopes (S275-295, SR) and fluorescence indices (HIX, BIX, FI). The DOC proxy measurements (a254) were almost 10 times higher at the Churchill site (Mean a254 116.77 cm-1) compared with the Quesnel river site (Mean a254 12.06 cm-1) during the study periods. While DGT labile Hg concentrations at the Quesnel site (2.17 to 98.97ppt) were almost 10 times more than the levels reported at the Churchill site (0.03 to 9.06 ppt). Fluorescence indices and the rise of labile Hg concentrations in spring indicated mostly terrestrial sources of DOM at both the sites. Spectral slopes and fluorescence indices substantiated that Churchill site had high molecular weight, complex and more humic DOM compared with Quesnel. DOM at both the sites was prone to temporal variation and affected by environmental conditions. Correlation between DGT labile-Hg and DOM parameters suggested that DGT collected Hg-organic complexes along with inorganic labile-Hg complexes. Author Keywords: Churchill, Diffusive gradient in thin films, Dissolved organic matter, Labile Hg, Mercury, Quesnel
Temporal Variability of Coloured Dissolved Organic Matter in the Canada Basin, Arctic Ocean (2007-2017)
This thesis investigated coloured and fluorescent dissolved organic matter in the Canada Basin, Arctic Ocean from 2007 to 2017. The first interannual time-series of its kind in the Canada Basin incorporated the use of EEM-PARAFAC to validate a seven-component model. Statistical temporal tests revealed (1) an increasing protein-like intensity in the upper polar mixed layer (UPML); (2) increasing intensities of humic-like components in the halocline due to increasing freshwater content; and (3) no change in DOM composition in deeper Atlantic waters (AW) congruent with the long residence time of the water mass (> 30 years). The significant decline in sea ice concentration was related to a decrease in humic-like FDOM due to enhanced photodegradation and an increase in protein-like FDOM, likely the results of increased biological activities in surface layers. This research provides evidence that the changes in physical and biological environment in the Arctic regions have already profound impacts on the composition and distribution of FDOM. Author Keywords: absorbance, Arctic Ocean, dissolved organic matter, fluorescence, parallel factor analysis, time-series
Temperature effects on the routine metabolic rates of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) eggs, alevin and fry
Early developmental stages of cold-adapted ectotherms such as brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) are at risk of mortality with increasing water temperatures because of their sensitivity to changes in their environment. I studied the mass and routine metabolic rate (RMR) of wild-origin brook trout eggs, alevin and young fry reared at normal (5°C) and elevated (9°C) temperatures for the duration of the study or at mismatched temperatures. This setup determined if preconditioning acclimation for one temperature benefits or hinders the organism later in life. Three levels of biological organization (ancestry, population, family) were studied using Akaike’s Information Criterion (AIC) to identify models that best accounted for variation in the data. Family, mass and temperature were most important in predicting body mass and mass-adjusted RMR, although population and ancestral-level differences were also detected at some life stages. Strong variation in body mass and mass-adjusted RMR among families may indicate adaptive potential within brook trout populations to respond to increases in water temperature with climate change. Author Keywords: Acclimation, AIC, Brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), Environmental matching, Routine metabolic rate, Temperature


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