Graduate Theses & Dissertations

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Assessing Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) Seasonal Occupancy in Haliburton County, ON Using Environmental DNA
Brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) are declining across Ontario in both numbers and distribution, prompting concern for their future. Here, conventional, emerging, and predictive tools were combined to document brook trout occupation across seasons using streams in Haliburton County, ON as model systems. By using the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry’s (OMNRFs) Aquatic Ecosystem Classification (AEC) system variables with environmental DNA (eDNA) sampling and backpack electrofishing, my research supports the development of species occupancy models (SOMs) and eDNA as tools to document brook trout occurrence. To do this, eDNA sampling was validated in Canadian Shield stream environments by comparison with single-pass backpack electrofishing before seasonally sampling two river systems across their main channel and tributaries to assess occupancy. Streams were classified as potential high, moderate, and low-quality brook trout habitats using indicator variables within the AEC and sampled seasonally with eDNA to quantify occupancy and relate it to habitat potential at the county scale. Results showed eDNA to be an effective tool for monitoring fish across Canadian Shield landscapes and that brook trout occupancy varied seasonally within and across watersheds, suggesting that habitat and fish management strategies need to consider seasonal movement and spatial connectivity. Using these tools will enable biologists to efficiently predict and document brook trout occurrences and habitat use across the landscape. Author Keywords: Aquatic Ecosystem Classification, brook trout, Canadian Shield, connectivity, environmental DNA, seasonal occupation
Enhanced weathering and carbonation of kimberlite residues from South African diamond mines
Mafic and ultramafic mine wastes have the potential to sequester atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) through enhanced weathering and CO2 mineralization. In this study, kimberlite residues from South African diamond mines were investigated to understand how weathering of these wastes leads to the formation of secondary carbonate minerals, a stable sink for CO2. Residues from Venetia Diamond Mine were fine-grained with high surface areas, and contained major abundances of lizardite, diopside, and clinochlore providing a maximum CO2 sequestration capacity of 3–6% of the mines emissions. Experiments utilized flux chambers to measure CO2 drawdown within residues and unweathered kimberlite exhibited greater negative fluxes (-790 g CO2/m2/year) compared to residues previously exposed to process waters (-190 g CO2/m2/year). Long-term weathering of kimberlite residues was explored using automated wet-dry cycles (4/day) over one year. Increases in the δ13C and δ18O values of carbonate minerals and unchanged amount of inorganic carbon indicate CO2 cycling as opposed to a net increase in carbon. Kimberlite collected at Voorspoed Diamond Mine contained twice as much carbonate in yellow ground (weathered) compared to blue ground, demonstrating the ability of kimberlite to store CO2 through prolonged weathering. This research is contributing towards the utilization of kimberlite residues and waste rock for CO2 sequestration. Author Keywords: CO2 fluxes, CO2 mineralization, CO2 sequestration, Enhanced weathering, Kimberlite, Passive carbonation
Calcium Stress in Daphnia Pulicaria and Exposure to Predator-Derived Cues
In recent decades, declining calcium concentrations have been reported throughout lakes across the southern edge of the Canadian Shield. This raises concern as Daphnia populations have shown to be decreasing as they require calcium not only for survival but to mitigate predation risks. Therefore, the purpose of my thesis was to study the adaptability of Daphnia under calcium limitation and predation risk from Chaoborus. Firstly, I examined the effects of calcium limitation and Chaobours kairomones on daphniid life-history and population growth. I found that low calcium concentrations and Chaoborus kairomones affected Daphnia calcium content, life-history traits, and survival. Next, I focused on how calcium concentrations and Chaoborus abundance affected the calcium content and abundance of daphniids. During this study, I also examined the relationship between the abundance of Daphnia and a competitor Holopedium. I found that calcium concentrations and the abundance of Chaoborus affects daphniid abundance. Overall, results from this study show the importance of considering both predation risk and calcium declines to better determine daphniid losses. Author Keywords: anti-predator responses, Chaoborus, competition , Life-History traits, predator cues, Zooplankton
Development of a Cross-Platform Solution for Calculating Certified Emission Reduction Credits in Forestry Projects under the Kyoto Protocol of the UNFCCC
This thesis presents an exploration of the requirements for and development of a software tool to calculate Certified Emission Reduction (CERs) credits for afforestation and reforestation projects conducted under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). We examine the relevant methodologies and tools to determine what is required to create a software package that can support a wide variety of projects involving a large variety of data and computations. During the requirements gathering, it was determined that the software package developed would need to support the ability to enter and edit equations at runtime. To create the software we used Java for the programming language, an H2 database to store our data, and an XML file to store our configuration settings. Through these choices, we can build a cross-platform software solution for the purpose outlined above. The end result is a versatile software tool through which users can create and customize projects to meet their unique needs as well as utilize the features provided to streamline the management of their CDM projects. Author Keywords: Carbon Emissions, Climate Change, Forests, Java, UNFCCC, XML
Phosphorus delivery in the Rainy-River Lake of the Woods Watershed
Lake of the Woods (LOW) is a large international waterbody which suffers from frequent and widespread algae blooms. Previous studies have highlighted the importance of the lake's largest tributary, the Rainy River (RR) and its significance in total phosphorus (TP) delivery to the LOW. Unfortunately, little is known about TP contributions from the RR and its tributaries within the Canadian portion of the watershed. This thesis examines patterns and sources of TP from four tributaries on the Canadian side of the lower RR region, two of which are predominantly natural, and two that are predominantly agricultural. Relationships between water quality parameters, land use and geologic characteristics were observed over a complete hydrologic year (Oct 1, 2018 - Sept 31, 2019), and through an intensive sampling campaign using a nested watershed approach during the spring high flow and summer low flow periods. Results revealed that TP and total suspended sediment (TSS) concentrations (>100 µg/L and >20 mg/L respectively), and loads (>20 kg/km2 and >3500 kg/km2, respectively), were greater at agricultural sites compared with natural sites (<65 µg/L TP and <15 mg/L TSS concentration, and <20 kg/km2 TP and <4000 kg/km2 TSS export). Total P, TSS, Fe, and Al were significantly positively correlated (R2= 0.26-0.59; p<0.05) and intensive sampling revealed that these relationships were strongest during the spring and at the agricultural sites (R2= 0.73-0.98; p<0.05). In contrast, the summer intensive sampling revealed that TP and redox sensitive Fe were significantly correlated (R2= 0.72; p<0.005), whereas redox insensitive Al and TSS were not, suggesting TP may be sourced via redox processes in the summer due to favourable hydrologic conditions. This was observed not only at sites with high wetland influence, but also at sites with more agricultural presence suggesting that redox sourced TP may also originate from mineral stream bed sediment during low flow periods. This research suggested two primary TP sources in the lower RR region: erosion in the spring, and redox processes (internal release) in the summer. It is recommended that intensive monitoring continue in Canada, and further research be conducted to fully understand the significance of internal P release in the tributaries. Author Keywords: erosion, land use, nutrients, particulates, redox, water quality
Legacy Effects Associated with the World’s Largest Ongoing Liming and Forest Regeneration Program in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada
Soil and tree chemistry were measured across 15 limed sites that were established 14 to 37 years ago within the Sudbury barrens in Ontario, along with two unlimed pre-treatment condition reference sites and an unlimed remnant pine forest. Soil pH and base cation (calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and potassium (K)) concentrations were elevated in surface organic [FH] horizons up to 37-years post limestone treatment. Limestone in the organic horizon was evident by higher Ca/Sr ratios (a good marker of dolomite) in younger sites. Base cation mass budgets were generally unable to account for the mass of added Ca and Mg. Sudbury is characterized by widespread metal contamination. Metal (copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), and lead (Pb)) concentrations were generally greatest within the FH horizon and unrelated to stand age. Copper and Ni concentrations in soil generally decreased with distance from the nearest smelter. Metal partitioning (Kd) in soil was most influenced by soil pH rather than organic matter suggesting that as liming effects fade over time metal availability may increase. Author Keywords: Afforestation, Degraded, Limestone, nutrient, Space-for-time, Sudbury
Effects of hydrologic seasonality on dissolved organic matter composition, export, and biodegradability in two contrasting streams
Environmental and seasonal processes are important watershed drivers controlling the amount, composition, and fate of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in aquatic ecosystems. We used ten months of water samples and eight months of bioassay incubations from two contrasting catchments (agriculture and natural, forested) to assess the effects of seasonal variability on the composition, export, and biodegradability of DOM. As expected, the DOM composition and exports were more allochthonous-like and autochthonous-like in the forest and agriculture streams, respectively. However, we found no relationship between DOM composition and biodegradability in our study, suggesting that broad environmental factors play a large part in determining bioavailability of DOM. We found that both differences between the catchments and seasonal variability in hydrology and water temperature cause shifts in DOM composition that can affect exports and potentially affect its susceptibility to microbial activity. More research is needed to fully understand the impact of land use and temporal variability on bioavailability and delivery to downstream ecosystems. Author Keywords: Bioavailable dissolved organic carbon, Biodegradability, Dissolved organic matter, Export, Seasonality, Streams
Monitoring and fate of selected tire-derived organic contaminants
Road runoff is a vector for the transport of potentially toxic chemicals into receiving waters. In this study, selected tire-derived chemicals were monitored in surface waters of rivers adjacent to two high traffic highways in the Greater Toronto Area in Ontario, Canada. Composite samples were collected from the Don River and Highland Creek in the GTA during 5 hydrological events that occurred in the period between early October 2019 and late March 2020, as well as an event in August 2020. Grab samples were collected from these rivers during a period of low flow in August 2020, as well as during a storm event in July of 2020. Analysis was performed using ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography with high resolution mass spectrometric detection (UHPLC-HRMS). Hexamethoxymethylmelamine (HMMM), a cross-linker of tire material, was detected at elevated concentrations (> 1 µg/L) during rain events in the fall and winter of 2019-20 and during a period of rapid snow melt in early March of 2020. These samples were also analyzed for the tire additive, 6PPD, and its oxidation by-product, 6PPD-quinone, as well as 1,3-diphenylguanidine (DPG). In many samples collected from the Don River and Highland Creek during storm events, the estimated concentrations of 6PPD-quinone exceeded the reported LC50 of 0.8 µg/L for Coho salmon exposed to this compound. Temporal samples collected at 3-hour intervals throughout rain event the October 2020 showed that there was a delay of several hours after the start of the event before these compounds reached their peak concentrations. In addition, 26 candidate transformation products and precursor compounds of HMMM were monitored; 15 of these compounds were detected in surface waters in the GTA. The maximum total concentration of this class of methoxymethylmelamine compounds in surface water samples was estimated to be 18 µg/L. There is limited knowledge about the properties of HMMM, its precursor contaminants, and its transformation compounds, as well as their fate in the environment. COSMO-RS solvation theory was used to estimate the physico-chemical properties of HMMM and its derivatives. Using the estimated values for these properties (e.g., solubility, vapour pressure, log Kow) as inputs to the Equilibrium Criterion (EQC) fugacity-based multimedia model, the compounds were predicted to readily partition into aqueous media, with mobility in water increasing with the extent of loss of methoxymethyl groups from HMMM. Overall, this study contributes to the growing literature indicating that potentially toxic tire-wear compounds are transported via road runoff into urban surface waters. In addition, this study provides insight into the environmental behaviour of HMMM and its transformation products. Author Keywords: 6PPD-quinone, COSMOtherm, Fugacity, Hexamethoxymethylmelamine, Road runoff, Tire wear
Assessing the Potential of Permaculture as an Adaptation Strategy Towards Climate Change in Central Ontario
This thesis uses three approaches to assess the potential of permaculture in Central Ontario. This was done using a vegetable field trial and modelling programs to determine the effectiveness of permaculture to decrease negative impacts of climate change based on projected climate values derived from regional circulation models. The first approach showed no statistical difference (P<0.05) of applying varied volumes and combinations of organic amendments on crop yields. The second approach indicated permaculture may be a sustainable production system with respect to soil erosion when compared to traditional agricultural practices. The third approach was inconclusive due to the lack of quantitative literature on permaculture management impacts on biomass yields, soil carbon or nutrient retention, which were missing from basic and scientific literature searches. The models used within this thesis include USLE, RUSLE2, AgriSuite, RothC and Holos. Author Keywords: Agriculture, Climate Change, Computer Modelling, Permaculture, Soil Erosion and Assessment
Biosynthesis and impact of cytokinins on growth of the oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus
The oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, is one of the most widely cultivated edible basidiomycetes. It has gained increased attention for its economic, environmental, and medicinal properties. While a lot is known about cytokinins (CKs) and their actions at the molecular and cellular levels in plants, much less is known about the function of CKs in other kingdoms. Cytokinins, which have been detected in several fungal species, play a role in pathogenic attack against plants or during plant growth promotion by plant beneficial microbes; however, the role of CKs in fungal physiology, separate from plant associations remains largely unknown. This thesis focuses on the occurrence of fungal-derived CKs in P. ostreatus when grown in vitro as submerged or aerial mycelium. Cytokinin profiling by UHPLC-HRMS/MS revealed that P. ostreatus produces CKs and that the tRNA degradation pathway is the main source of these molecules. CK dynamics within fungal growth supported previous evidence, which suggested that tRNA degradation products have a role in the physiological development of fungi for which CKs act as fungal growth regulators. A second component of the thesis demonstrated that P. ostreatus responds to exogenous applications of aromatic and isoprenoid CKs and their effects were dependent on the dose and CK type. N6-Benzyladenine (BAP), Kinetin (KIN), N6-isopentenyladenine (iP), and trans-zeatin (tZ) bioassays revealed hormone-type responses (hormesis: biphasic response). At low doses, mycelium growth could be stimulated, whereas, at high doses only inhibitory effects were observed. This stimulation/inhibition was observed whether the measured response was an increase/decrease of aerial mycelium colony diameter, biomass accumulation or a change in mycelium morphology as compared to the controls. Results indicated there is potential to alter mycelium growth and development of P. ostreatus; thus, CKs may play the role of a “mycohormone” and may be specifically helpful for medicinal fungi by increasing growth and efficiency to produce many biologically active substances with valuable medical and environmental applications. Author Keywords: cytokinins, fungal-derived CKs, hormesis, mycelium, mycohormone, Pleurotus ostreatus
Trace Metal Geochemistry in Peatlands
Peatlands can be found widely across all latitudes and play a significant role in global cycles within the earth’s biosphere. The anoxic conditions in peatlands promotes the accumulation of organic matter through decreased rates of decomposition and the storage of certain elements, which have received contaminant loading over the course of human existence, with significant increases occurring during the period of industrialization. We assessed global patterns of metal enrichment in peatlands in 439 cores distributed across 5 continents and 21 countries and measured 35 elements by depth increments and by peatland type. Global patterns in enrichment factors (EF’s) were determined for all metals with the majority of metals being found to have a median EF < 2 indicating relatively minor enrichment. Principal component analysis indicated EF’s of 6 metals (Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn), 2 metalloids (As and Sb) and Se in the upper peat horizon had similar spatial patterns among peatlands and these elements had generally the highest EF’s with many cores exceeding EF >10 and some having EF values >100. Significant differences in EF’s were found for these 9 “pollution” elements by peatland type and to a greater extent by geographic region, with higher EF values typically occurring in Europe and North America. Enrichment factors for most elements exhibited weak but significant positive correlations with modelled [1850 – present] S deposition. Estimated pools for the “pollution metals” within the 0 - 40 cm depth varied considerably, with median global pools in peat ranging from 12.9 mg m-2 (Sb) to 439 mg m-2 (Zn) for these 9 metals. Climate changes presents a significant risk to global peatland geochemistry due to expected changes in hydrologic regimes, resulting in potentially increased metal mobility though drought-induced peatland acidification, with historic areas previously impacted by industrial activities presenting the greatest risk of metal release to downstream receiving environments. Using a case study, we examined the impact of simulated 30-day drought on pore water chemistry at six sites in a peatland complex in Elliot Lake Ontario that were historically impacted by uranium (U) mining activities. All sites responded similarly to simulated drought with pore water pH significantly declining. The decline in pore water pH was likely due to increasing sulphate (SO42-) concentrations, which accompanied large increases in Al, Ni, Cu, Pb, Zn, and U. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) increased, which may further enhance Al, Cu, and U mobility as these metals are strongly complexed by organic acids. Metal partitioning (Kd) values could be significantly predicted by pH and DOC although the strength of the relationship varied considerably among sites. Multiple linear regression and the inclusion of SO4-2 improved predictions, indicating that declines in pH as a result of SO4-2 and H+ production primarily governs metals and U partitioning in peatland soils. The results from both studies show that metal enrichment in global peatlands is highly variable, with northern peatlands in industrialized areas presenting the greatest risk of metal release to downstream surface waters based on expected hydrologic impacts from climate change due to historical and on-going metal and S deposition. Author Keywords: Acidification, Climate Change, Drought, Enrichment Factors, Global, Peatlands
Effects of Opioids on the Development and Reproductive Capacity of Japanese Medaka, Oryzias latipes
Opioid drugs are among the microcontaminants that are discharged with domestic wastewater into the aquatic environment with the potential to affect the development and reproductive capacity of aquatic organisms. To study the effects of exposure of fish to opioid drugs, Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) were exposed over a full life cycle to environmentally relevant (i.e. ng/L) concentrations of two opioids, codeine and fentanyl. Acute exposure of early life stage (ELS) of medaka to codeine resulted in slightly extended times to hatch, but no increase in embryo mortalities or reduced hatching success. Chronic exposure to codeine at a nominal concentration of 25,000 ng/L over a full life cycle interfered with growth, reducing the weight of the fish at maturity. Life cycle treatments with codeine at all test concentrations resulted in a significant reduction in the number of eggs produced in reproductive trials, as well as a reduction in the numbers of mature oocytes in adult females. High treatments with codeine also increased the percentage of immature sperm cells in adult males. Life cycle exposures to codeine also resulted in reduced whole-body concentrations of several hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis hormones, including reduced levels of luteinizing hormone in male and female fish and a reduction in 11-ketotestosterone in males and 17β-estradiol in females. Fentanyl did not affect reproduction or HPG hormones at the exposure concentrations tested, but high fentanyl exposures increased the mortality rate among ELS’s of the F1 generation offspring from life cycle exposed adults. The results of this thesis contribute to the literature on the environmental impacts of microcontaminants of wastewater origin and, the potential for effects in fish exposed to opioids.Keywords: Opioids, microcontaminants, fentanyl, codeine, sexual development, reproduction. Author Keywords: codeine, fentanyl, microcontaminants, opioids, reproduction, sexual development

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