Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Exonic Trinucleotide Microsatellites
Trinucleotide repeats (TNRs) are a class of highly polymorphic microsatellites which occur in neutral and non-neutral loci and may provide utility for individual- and population-identification. Exonic trinucleotide motifs, in particular, offer additional advantages for non-human species that typically utilize dinucleotide microsatellite loci. Specifically, the reduction of technical artifacts, greater separation of alleles and greater specificity of amplification products leading to more efficient multiplexing and cross-taxa utilization. This study aims to identify and characterize polymorphic trinucleotide repeats and conserved primer sequences which are conserved across Cervidae (deer) species and their potential for individual identification in forensic wildlife investigations. Chapter one provides a broad introduction to trinucleotide microsatellites, chapter two deals with data-mining TNRs and chapter three applies the identified TNRs as genetic markers for individual identification. Results demonstrate proof-of-concept that exonic TNRs are capable of giving random match probabilities low enough to be employed in individual identification of evidentiary samples. Author Keywords: DNA typing, Exons, Genetic Markers, Individual Identification, Trinucleotide, Wildlife Forensics
THE EFFECTS OF ROTATIONAL GRAZING AND HAY MANAGEMENT ON THE REPRODUCTIVE SUCCESS OF BOBOLINK AND EASTERN MEADOWLARK IN EASTERN ONTARIO
I investigated the impact of beef-cattle farm management on the reproductive success of Bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus) and Eastern Meadowlark (Sturnella magna) within Eastern Ontario. I monitored rotational grazing management regimes and hay cut dates while assessing breeding phenology and reproductive success of Bobolinks and Eastern Meadowlarks. In pasture paddocks the major factor determining Bobolink reproductive success was the date that cattle entered a paddock to graze, with earlier entries resulting in lower reproductive success. On a landscape scale, within a series of paddocks grazed by a single herd, as the number of paddocks grazed during the nesting season increased, the number of Bobolinks that reproduced successfully decreased. Experimental quantification of trampling showed that cattle exposure to clay pigeon targets, regardless of stocking rates, resulted in the majority of targets being trampled. In hayfields associated with beef- cattle operations, grassland birds had a higher likelihood of success when cutting occurred after 4 July. The best method to improve the reproductive success of Bobolinks and Eastern Meadowlarks is to leave some hayfields and pasture paddocks undisturbed until nesting is complete. Author Keywords: Bobolink, Dolichonyx oryzivorus, farm management, hayfield, pasture, rotational grazing

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