Graduate Theses & Dissertations


Population Dynamics of Eastern Coyotes in Southeastern Ontario
The ability of animal populations to compensate for harvest mortality provides the basis for sustainable harvesting. Coyote populations are resilient to exploitation, but the underlying mechanisms of compensation and how they inter-relate are not fully understood. Moreover, deficiencies in the quality and quantity of information about eastern coyotes preclude effective management. I combined field work, laboratory work, and genetic profiling to investigate the population dynamics of eastern coyotes in southeastern Ontario. Specifically, I conducted research on coyotes during 2010–2013 in Prince Edward County where coyote hunting and trapping seasons were open all year. First, I investigated their social status dynamics and space-use patterns. Transients exhibited extensive space-use relative to residents, potentially encountering vacant territories and/or breeding positions, and some transients became residents, potentially filling vacant territories and/or breeding positions. Accordingly, the study population demonstrated the potential to compensate for harvest mortality via source-sink dynamics and/or buffering reproductive capacity. Second, I investigated their survival and cause-specific mortality. Residents exhibited greater survival than transients, probably partly because of the benefits of holding a territory, and transients seemingly exhibited greater vulnerability to harvest than residents, probably partly because their movements exposed them to greater cumulative mortality risks over time. Accordingly, harvest mortality disproportionately impacted the non-reproductive segment of the study population and thus may have failed to substantially limit reproduction, and thus recruitment. Third, I investigated their reproduction and breeding histories. Females in the study population exhibited age-specific reproductive rates and litter sizes generally typical of those in exploited coyote populations. Accordingly, increased reproductive rates and increased litter sizes may have offset losses due to harvest mortality. There was at least some breeder turnover in the study population due to harvest mortality, but many breeders survived to reproduce for multiple years and those that died were quickly replaced. My findings have important management implications for eastern coyotes and contribute significantly to better understanding of their resilience to harvest. Indiscriminate killing of coyotes through liberal harvest is unlikely to be effective in reducing their abundance. Management strategies should consider non-lethal alternatives and/or targeted lethal control for dealing with problem coyotes. Author Keywords: Canis latrans var., eastern coyotes, population dynamics, Prince Edward County, southeastern Ontario
Reconnecting the Heart and Spirit
This research explores key themes emerging from the question of the meaning Anishinaabe individuals attach to utilizing traditional practices and ceremonies to address their own trauma. The contributors share their stories, which are deeply rooted in relationships. The methodology of this research is also rooted within an Indigenous paradigm; storytelling is a core feature of relationships and knowledge transmission through its ability to weave together and across generations. Indigenous cultures have had a long history of both verbal and visual storytelling, in the forms of pictographs and petroglyphs, wampum belts, bead and quill work, and so on. While stories are often entertaining, they are at their core, the most human of activities. Anishinaabe approaches to ceremony, spirit and the sacred are woven into the language, attitudes and practices that people still engage in, despite the depredations of colonization. The findings of this research explore how identity, found through love, caring, self-awareness, and the (re)claiming of wellness and wholeness, permeates the stories of healing and is rooted in ceremonies. This is relationship with self and self-in-relation to all things: niwiikaniginaa. Land-as-home, culture, family, and love ground people in their sense of self and wellness. Language and thought emerge from the land, the source of well-being or mino bimaadsiwin in the most profound ways. It is through home – land, family, culture, spiritual connection – that healing occurs in ways that cannot be found in clinical systems. Author Keywords: Colonization, First Nations, Healing, Identity, Storytelling, Trauma
Assessing Measured and Perceived Risks to Drinking Water Sources
Microcontaminants originating from wastewater effluent and run-off from agricultural lands may be present in the sources of drinking water for rural and Indigenous communities in mixed-use watersheds. In this study, a convergent parallel mixed-methods design was applied to assess measured and perceived risks of contamination in the sources of drinking water for two communities; the Six Nations of the Grand River community in Ontario and the community of Soufriere in St. Lucia, West Indies. The overall goal of the project was to assess how measured and perceived risks of exposure to chemical and biological contaminants in drinking water sources could inform water management strategies for the communities. Quantitative data obtained from the analysis of water samples collected indicated that the highest levels and occurrence of fecal bacteria were found in the Soufriere watershed while the highest concentrations and occurrence of pesticides were found in the Grand River watershed. In the Grand River watershed, conventional treatment of water followed by activated carbon filtration and UV disinfection removed fecal bacteria and also removed many chemical microcontaminants with efficiencies as high as 98%. Data from both watersheds indicated that there was a strong positive correlation between the levels of caffeine and sucralose (i.e. indicators of wastewater contamination) in water samples and the levels of either Total Coliforms or fecal bacteria of human origin. Human health risk assessments of individual pesticides and pesticide mixtures performed by applying a hazard quotient (HQ) and hazard index (HI) model, respectively indicated that there were no apparent risks to human health from those microcontaminants. Qualitative data obtained from face-to-face interviews with water managers and health professionals working in the two communities, which were collected and analysed concurrently but independently, illustrated that there were cross-cultural similarities and differences in factors influencing the perceptions of risks associated with the sources of drinking water. These perceptions of risks were mainly influenced by factors such as heuristics or informal and informal reasoning, cognitive-affective factors, social-political institutions and cultural factors. These factors may have also influenced water managers and health professionals, as they often recommended more “soft” strategies for managing water resources in the communities. Key words: pesticides, fecal bacteria, microcontaminants, POCIS, measured risks, perceived risks, water management, First Nations, Grand River, Soufriere, St. Lucia Author Keywords: fecal bacteria, measured risks, microcontaminants, perceived risks, POCIS, water management
Icelandic Dust Entrainment, Emission & Deposition
Extremely active dust sources within selected areas of Iceland that are comprised of particles supplied from both glacio-fluvial outwash systems and volcanic eruptions (Bullard et al., 2016; Gassó et al., 2018). The supply of sediments, sparsity of vegetation, high frequency of surface winds, and lack of adequate gravel pavement to reduce sand drifting are believed to influence the duration, frequency, and magnitude of these dust events in Iceland. Apart from recent collaborative efforts to measure and model dust entrainment, emission and deposition (Prospero et al., 2012; Zwaaftink et al., 2017), several underlying physical mechanisms that are unique to cold, humid climates and the geology of Iceland are not well understood. This study specifically aims to assess and understand the physics of Icelandic dust entrainment and deposition with an emphasis on the influence of climate and the physical characteristics of the particles. A series of laboratory experiments of different configurations were carried out on several sediments collected from some of the most emissive sources in Iceland in order to understand these dust processes. The results from this study show that the increasing particle sphericity is associated with progressively smaller particle size; and an abundance of amorphous glass increases the surface area and roughness of the particles, which contributes to high porosity that alters the particle skeletal density. The particle features and climate are interlinked with the entrainment and deposition rates. For instance, coarse sediments emit higher PM concentrations than sediments containing more clay. The strong wind shear at the bed surface acts to disperse many of the tiny particle aggregates and coated liquid droplets contained within a splash structure created by the impact of a single water droplet. The deposition of suspended dust particulates is dependent on the particle characteristics and relative humidity. The retreat of glaciers and ice-cap masses in Iceland are expected to expose new dust particulate sources as the global mean temperature continues to rise (Cannone et al., 2008; Radic and Hock, 2011). Therefore, the influence of the particle characteristics and climate on the dust entrainment, emission and de- position must be accounted for in the parameterization of dust dispersion models related to suspended volcaniclastic particles. Author Keywords: High latitude cold climate environments, Icelandic dust particle characteristics, Laser Doppler anemometer, Rain droplet impact, Settling velocity, Wind tunnel
Novel Aliphatic Amides from Vegetable Oils as Bio-Based Phase Change Materials
Energy storage efficiency and sustainability require advanced technologies and novel materials. Recently, bio-based phase change materials (PCMs) have received significant attention for thermal energy storage (TES) uses. Vegetable oils are versatile renewable feedstocks that are well suited for the development of sustainable, functional PCMs. PCMs derived from vegetable oil, which compares favorably with paraffin waxes, the industry standard, are currently available. However, their melting points are typically below 80 °C preventing their wider integration in TES applications, particularly those requiring higher temperatures. The present work manipulated the structural building blocks of fatty acids to advantageously affect the intermolecular forces and increase the properties relevant to TES. The polar amide functional group was incorporated into fatty moieties to take advantage of the strong hydrogen bonds that it forms to increase intermolecular attractions and hence increase the phase change temperature and enthalpy as well as to improve thermal stability and thermal conductivity. A series of carefully designed lipid-derived monoamides and four series of lipid-derived diamides were synthesized via benign and simple amidation reactions. The purity of the amides and the intermolecular hydrogen bond strength were assessed using 1H NMR and FTIR. The properties relevant to TES such as thermal transition, crystal structure and polymorphism, thermal stability and thermal conductivity were measured using DSC, XRD, TGA and a thermal conductivity analyzer, respectively. The complex roles of the PCM’s constituting molecular building blocks in the phase behavior were elucidated and correlations between structure, processing conditions and macroscopic physicochemical properties, never before elucidated, were assembled in predictive relationships, drawing a unified picture of the rules that generally govern the phase behavior of lipid-derived PCMs. Practically, the prepared amides demonstrated desirable TES properties with substantial performance improvement over current bio-based PCMs. They presented increased phase change temperatures (79 - 159 °C), enthalpies of fusion (155 - 220 J/g) and thermal stability (234 - 353 °C). More importantly, the predictive structure-function relationships established in this work will allow the straightforward engineering of lipid-derived amide PCM architectures with judicious selection of molecular building blocks to extend the range of organic PCMs and deliver thermal properties desirable for TES applications. Author Keywords: LATENT HEAT THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE, LIPID-DERIVED AMIDES, PHASE CHANGE MATERIALS, RENEWABLE, SOLID LIQUID AMIDE PCMS, THERMAL PROPERTIES
White-Tailed Fear
The primary method used to maintain white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) populations at densities that are ecologically, economically, socially, and culturally sustainable is hunter harvest. This method considers only the removal of animals from the population (the direct effect) and does not conventionally consider the costs imposed on deer as they adopt hunter avoidance strategies (the risk effect). The impact of risk effects on prey can exceed that of direct effects and there is interest in applying this concept to wildlife management. Deer are potential candidates as they have demonstrated behavioural responses to hunters. I explored the potential of such a management practice by quantifying how human decisions around hunting create a landscape of fear for deer and how deer alter their space use and behaviour in response. I used a social survey to explore the attitudes of rural landowners in southern and eastern Ontario towards deer and deer hunting to understand why landowners limited hunting on their property. I used GPS tracking devices to quantify habitat selection by hunters and hunting dogs (Canis familiaris) to better understand the distribution of hunting effort across the landscape. I used GPS collars to quantify the habitat selection of deer as they responded to this hunting pressure. I used trail cameras to quantify a fine-scale behavioural response, vigilance, by deer in areas with and without hunting. Human actions created a highly heterogeneous landscape of fear for deer. Landowner decisions excluded hunters from over half of the rural and exurban landscape in southern and eastern Ontario, a pattern predicted by landowner hunting participation and not landcover composition. Hunter decisions on whether to hunt with or without dogs resulted in dramatically different distributions of hunting effort across the landscape. Deer showed a high degree of behavioural plasticity and, rather than adopting uniform hunter avoidance strategies, tailored their response to the local conditions. The incorporation of risk effects into white-tailed deer management is feasible and could be done by capitalizing on a better understanding of deer behaviour to improve current management practices or by designing targeted hunting practices to elicit a landscape of fear with specific management objectives. Author Keywords: Brownian bridge movement models, hunting, landscape of fear, resource utilization functions, risk effects, white-tailed deer
Range dynamics of two closely related felids
Species ranges are changing and the rate at which the climate is warming is faster than anything previously seen in the past, consequently species will need to adapt quickly, track the climate or perish. Cold adapted terrestrial species are the most vulnerable, because they are limited by the availability of land at the cold edge of their range. This means that many alpine, boreal and polar species essentially have nowhere to go as the climate warms. Habitat generalists are widely distributed across the globe and are highly adaptable to anthropogenic change. Our future biodiversity may only consist of several habitat generalists. The Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) is a boreal species that has limited range expansion potential at the cold end of its range and its range has already contracted by 40%. The lynx has nowhere to go as climate warming progresses in this current century. Therefore, understanding the causes of its range contraction could enlighten us on conservation and management strategies that we might undertake as climate warms. My analyses indicated that the Canada lynx seems to have tracked the habitat that it is adapted to in more northern homogenous boreal forests and the bobcat (Lynx rufus), a habitat generalist, has simply replaced it in the south. Author Keywords: Anthropogenic Change, Competition, Connectivity, Lynx canadensis, Lynx rufus, Range change
Forensic Epistemology
Forensic epistemology is the study of knowledge as it relates to forensic science and can be broken into four sources; intuitive, authoritative, logical and empirical. In a four-phase research approach, I explored reasoning skills (logical knowledge) used by crime scene experts and methods (empirical knowledge) for forensic case-specific experimentation. First, the reasoning skills of crime scene investigators (CSI) and bloodstain pattern analysts (BPA) were tested, correlated to demographics and reasoning categories were compared. Practitioner’s with graduate level education performed better on the reasoning test, however, significant differences were not found between test scores and years of experience. Similarly, there was no difference between test scores and employment status (specifically, police or civilian employees), for the CSI group nor within the BPA group. This information suggests that level of education plays the most important role in the development and use of reasoning skills, whereas experience and employment status are not as influential. Second, I investigate potential strategies in selecting data types for case-specific experimentation in pattern-interpretation disciplines within forensic science. I also examined the epistemic status of practitioner case experimentation in forensic science. Practitioners were more confident in a mixed-method approach when conducting case-specific experimentation. In addition, there is a knowledge gap in experimental design for some forensic practitioners. Third, is a reprint of the introductory section of my published book entitled The Scientific Method in Forensic Science: A Canadian Handbook that abridges knowledge gained from this dissertation with further evidence-based literature review and experiential examples. This phase summarizes the scientific method in forensic science and provides guidance for forensic science students and practitioners. The final phase merges the findings from the primary studies with a literature review; offering scientific evidence supporting suggested research and pedagogic strategies that can help increase the epistemic status of forensic science. Author Keywords: case-specific research, epistemology, forensic science, hypothetico-deductive reasoning, logic, research models
Environmental structure, morphology and spatial ecology of the five-lined skink (Plestiodon fasciatus) at high latitude range limits
Detecting relevant and meaningful patterns from the complex, interconnected network of relationships between organisms and their environment is a primary objective of ecology. Ecological patterns occur across multiple scales of space and time. In this dissertation, I examine aspects of environmental structure that influence a species’ distribution and are expressed in that species’ population dynamics. I compare the morphology of the five-lined skink (Plestiodon fasciatus) near its high latitude range limits with a lower latitude population and evaluate the economics of their behaviour in the context of its reproductive strategy. I tested the conformity of this species to biogeographical rules postulated by MacArthur, Bergmann, and Rensch. Spatial ecology was investigated in the context of the environmental potential for polygamy proposed by Emlen and Oring (1977) The five-lined skink, Plestiodon fasciatus, conformed to these biogeographic rules. Specifically, abiotic factors were the primary limiting factors affecting distribution at the high latitude range limits of the species; body size was larger in high latitude populations; and the degree of sexual size dimorphism was greater at high latitude than at low latitude. Spatial ecology at the individual scale was influenced by sites with suitable thermal conditions which facilitate the polygynandrous mating system documented in P. fasciatus in high latitude populations. My results confirm the importance of microsites with suitable thermal profiles as key habitat for ectothermic vertebrates at high latitudes. The influence of temperature as a limiting abiotic factor is expressed in population density, body size, spatial ecology, and reproductive strategy of P. fasciatus. Conservation and restoration of high latitude populations of ectothermic vertebrates should focus on ensuring thermal requirements of the species of concern are met before other factors are addressed, as temperature is likely the single most important limiting factor at high latitude range limits. Author Keywords: biogeography, lizard, Plestiodon fasciatus, range limits, sexual size dimorphism, spatial ecology
Shorebird Stopover Ecology and Environmental Change at James Bay, Ontario, Canada
I examined how shorebirds respond to environmental change at a key subarctic migratory bird stopover site, the southwestern coast of James Bay, Ontario, Canada. First, I investigated if the morphology of sandpipers using James Bay during southbound migration has changed compared to 40 years prior. I found shorter, more convex and maneuverable wings for sandpipers in the present-day compared to the historical monitoring period, which supports the hypothesis that wing length change is driven by increases in predation risk. Secondly, I assessed the relationship between migration distance, body condition, and shorebird stopover and migratory decisions. Species that travelled farther distances from James Bay to wintering areas migrated with more characteristics of a time-minimizing migration strategy whereas species that travelled shorter distances migrated with energy minimizing strategies. Body condition impacted length of stay, wind selectivity at departure, groundspeeds, and probability of stopover and detection in North America after departing James Bay. Thirdly, I examined annual variation in dry/wet conditions at James Bay and found that shorebirds had lower body mass in years with moderate drought. In the present-day, drought resulted in lower invertebrate abundance and refuelling rates of shorebirds during stopover, which led to shorter stopover duration for juveniles and a higher probability of stopover outside of James Bay for all groups except white-rumped sandpiper. Finally, I estimated the relative importance of intertidal salt marsh and flat habitats to the diets of small shorebirds and found that semipalmated and white-rumped sandpiper (Calidris pusilla and C. fuscicollis) and semipalmated plover (Charadrius semipalmatus) diets consist of ~ 40 – 75% prey from intertidal marsh habitats, the highest documented in the Western Hemisphere for each species. My research shows that James Bay is of high importance to white-rumped sandpipers, which are unlikely to stop in North America after departing James Bay en route to southern South America. Additionally, intertidal salt marsh habitats (and Diptera larvae) appear particularly important for small shorebirds in the region. My thesis shows that changing environmental conditions, such as droughts, can affect shorebird refuelling and stopover strategies. Author Keywords: body condition, diet, environmental change, migration, ornithology, stopover ecology
Laughing to be Citizens
This study will focus on how immigrants from Sub Saharan African (SSA) countries use humour as a tool for integration and belonging (and ultimately citizenship) in Canada. My aim is to investigate, through a detailed analysis of popular culture productions from immigrant communities, the strategies and techniques of humour that immigrants employ as a mode of communication with fellow immigrants, their immediate host community and the governmental authorities of Canada. I am particularly interested in how African immigrants use their oral background and cultural memory in the production of jokes and other humour products as a way of interacting, first with fellow immigrants as the primary audience and recipients of the humour and, second, with Canadian society at large. Using the ‘Signifying’ theory of Henry Louis Gates (1988) and Mikhail Bakhtin’s (1968) concept of the “Carnivalesque” as the theoretical framework for this study, I argue that immigrants from SSA countries are using humour to question hegemonic regulations that portrays them as victims, while providing alternative narratives of themselves as subjects with human agency. I further postulate that immigrants are taking advantage of the policy of multiculturalism that exists in Canada in a positive manner as an enabler for their humour. In turn, they are using the humour produced to communicate and break down social barriers, while building bridges across communities and social strata. I bolster my arguments with a consideration of humour in three genres of popular culture – literature, standup comedy and film – to show how immigrants rely on their home culture to produce humour in an effort to find belonging in Canada as contributors rather than victims. This thesis is the first work to examine SSA humour, produced by immigrants from these countries, in the context of their immigration and integration into Canada, and the first to present extended literary criticism of the works of immigrant writers, Tololwa Mollel, Yabome Gilpin-Jackson and Segun Akinlolu. This is also the first study on the comedy of Arthur Simeon, originally from Uganda and the film of Phina Brooks, originally from Nigeria. My analysis apprehends the immigrant voice in the writings and productions of these artists and places their works in conversation with Canadian literary/cultural criticism. Until now, there has been no study of the function of humour produced by African immigrants in Canada. It is my hope that this study will not only fill that gap, but also lay the groundwork for future study in this field that I believe holds a lot of socio-cultural promise, especially in the area of cohesive habitation amongst different ethnic groups. This study aims to contribute to conversations on immigration and its impact on Canadian society as part of nation-building and national consciousness. Author Keywords: African Stand up Comedy, Humour, Immigration, Multiculturalism, Popular Culture, Postcolonialism
Advanced broadband CARS microscopy based on a supercontinuum-generating photonic crystal fiber
I have developed and improved a coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscope based on the spectral focusing (SF) technique. The CARS microscope uses an 800 nm oscillator and a photonic crystal fibre module to generate the supercontinuum Stokes. The photonic crystal fibre was originally designed to generate light beyond 945 nm which is useful for CARS microscopy in the CH/OH frequencies but essentially prevents access to the important fingerprint region at lower frequencies. With expert and nontraditional approaches to generating supercontinuum with sufficient power at wavelengths below 945 nm, I substantially extend the usefulness of the module for SF-CARS microscopy deep into the fingerprint region. Moreover, with the invention of a dynamic supercontinuum generation scheme we call "spectral surfing," I improve both the brightness of the CARS signal and extend the accessible CARS frequency range to frequencies as low as 350 cm$^{-1}$ and as high as 3500 cm$^{-1}$---all in a single scan-window. I demonstrate the capabilities of our broadband SF-CARS system through CARS and four-wave mixing hyperspectroscopy on samples such as astaxanthin, lily pollen and glass; liquid chemicals such as benzonitrile, nitrobenzene and dimethyl sulfoxide; and on pharmaceutical samples such as acetaminophen, ibuprofen, and cetirizine. Furthermore, In search of more useful Stokes supercontinuum sources, I compare the performance of two commercial photonic crystal fibre modules for use in SF-CARS applications, ultimately finding that one module provides better spectral characteristics for static supercontinuum use, while the other provides improved characteristics when spectral surfing is implemented. Author Keywords: coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering, nonlinear microscopy, scanning microscopy, spectroscopy, supercontinuum generation, vibrational spectroscopy


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