Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Effect of Water Surface Simulated Rain Drop Impacts on Water to Air Chemical Transfers of Perfluorinated Carboxylic Acids (PFCAs)
Perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) are anthropogenic environmentally ubiquitous surfactants that tend to concentrate on water surfaces. This investigation looked at the effect of simulated rain on the atmospheric concentration of a suite of PFCAs (C2 - C12) above the bulk water system. Increased air concentrations of all PFCAs were detected during simulated rain events. Long chain PFCAs (>C8) were found to be much more concentrated in the air above the bulk water system than their short chain counter parts (
origin and ecological function of an ion inducing anti-predator behaviour in Lithobates tadpoles
Chemical cues are used commonly by prey to identify predation risk in aquatic environments. Previous work has indicated that negatively-charged ions of m/z 501 are possibly a kairomone that induces anti-predator responses in tadpoles. This thesis found that this ion species: (i) is produced by injured tadpoles; (ii) exhibits increased spectral intensity with higher tadpole biomass; and (iii) is not produced by starved predators. These results refute the hypothesis that the ion is a kairomone, and rather support its role as an alarm cue released from tadpoles. High resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS) revealed a unique elemental composition for [M-H]-, m/z 501.2886, of C26H45O7S-. Collision induced dissociation (CID) of ion m/z 501 formed product ions of m/z 97 and m/z 80, HSO4- and SO3-, respectively, indicating the presence of sulfate. Green frog (Lithobates clamitans) tadpoles exposed to m/z 501, and an industrial analogue, sodium dodecyl sulphate (NaC12H25O4S), exhibited similar anti-predator responses, thereby suggesting the potential role of organic sulfate as a tadpole behavioural alterant. Author Keywords: Alarm cue, Amphibian, Chemical Ecology, Mass spectrometry, Predator-prey interactions
Research and development of synthetic materials for presumptive testing in bloodstain pattern analysis
Chemical presumptive tests are used as the primary detection method for latent bloodstain evidence. This work focuses on developing a forensic blood substitute which mimics whole blood reactivity to a luminol solution commonly used in presumptive testing. Designing safe and accessible materials that mimic relevant properties of blood is a recognized research need in forensic science. Understanding the whole blood dynamics related to reactivity with presumptive testing chemicals is important for developing accurate analogues. Provided in this thesis is a quantitative and qualitative characterization of photoemission from the reaction of a luminol solution to ovine blood. Luminol reactivity of a horseradish peroxidase encapsulated sol-gel polymer was validated against this ovine blood standard. This material, the luminol-reactive forensic blood substitute, is a key deliverable of this research. An optimized protocol for implementing this technology as a reagent control test, and as a secondary school chemistry experiment are presented. This thesis outlines the research and development of a forensic blood substitute as it relates to presumptive testing in bloodstain pattern analysis. Author Keywords: bloodstain pattern analysis, forensic science, luminol, presumptive testing, secondary school education, sol-gel chemistry

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